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Complex-Valued Embedding Models for Knowledge Graphs

Abstract : The explosion of widely available relational datain the form of knowledge graphsenabled many applications, including automated personalagents, recommender systems and enhanced web search results.The very large size and notorious incompleteness of these data basescalls for automatic knowledge graph completion methods to make these applicationsviable. Knowledge graph completion, also known as link-prediction,deals with automatically understandingthe structure of large knowledge graphs---labeled directed graphs---topredict missing entries---labeled edges. An increasinglypopular approach consists in representing knowledge graphs as third-order tensors,and using tensor factorization methods to predict their missing entries.State-of-the-art factorization models propose different trade-offs between modelingexpressiveness, and time and space complexity. We introduce a newmodel, ComplEx---for Complex Embeddings---to reconcile both expressivenessand complexity through the use of complex-valued factorization, and exploreits link with unitary diagonalization.We corroborate our approach theoretically and show that all possibleknowledge graphs can be exactly decomposed by the proposed model.Our approach based on complex embeddings is arguably simple,as it only involves a complex-valued trilinear product,whereas other methods resort to more and more complicated compositionfunctions to increase their expressiveness. The proposed ComplEx model isscalable to large data sets as it remains linear in both space and time, whileconsistently outperforming alternative approaches on standardlink-prediction benchmarks. We also demonstrateits ability to learn useful vectorial representations for other tasks,by enhancing word embeddings that improve performanceson the natural language problem of entailment recognitionbetween pair of sentences.In the last part of this thesis, we explore factorization models abilityto learn relational patterns from observed data.By their vectorial nature, it is not only hard to interpretwhy this class of models works so well,but also to understand where they fail andhow they might be improved. We conduct an experimentalsurvey of state-of-the-art models, not towardsa purely comparative end, but as a means to get insightabout their inductive abilities.To assess the strengths and weaknesses of each model, we create simple tasksthat exhibit first, atomic properties of knowledge graph relations,and then, common inter-relational inference through synthetic genealogies.Based on these experimental results, we propose new researchdirections to improve on existing models, including ComplEx.
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Submitted on : Thursday, January 25, 2018 - 8:55:07 AM
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Théo Trouillon. Complex-Valued Embedding Models for Knowledge Graphs. Machine Learning [cs.LG]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAM048⟩. ⟨tel-01692327⟩

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