Rome, l'inscription des violences politiques dans la ville au cours des années de plomb : (1966-1982)

Abstract : Following the new historiographical path focused on the urban dimension of the armed struggle, this research analyses the milieus and the forms of the political extremism in Rome after ‘68. By an interdisciplinary approach – which integrates the contribution of philosophy, of urban studies, of sociology, of urban geography, of political sciences – this study rebuilt the relation between urban territory and the implementation of a subversive violence, often lethal and terrorist, in the context of the national modernization activated by the “economic boom” (1958-1963) and of the “cold war” dynamics. A special attention is payed to the apprehension of the ideological and cultural evolutions - grown inside the “urban crisis” which affects the critical development of Rome in the post-war period – that transformed the biggest Italian metropolis in a perfect ecosystem for this extreme conflict, far beyond the only effects of the geopolitical  (European crisis of the Atlanticism) and socio-economic factors  (explosion of the social struggles claiming the fruition of goods and services created by for consumerist modernity). This study went back to the basic divisions of the structure, the society and the environment of Rome: the fundamental cleavages, appeared at the beginning of the republican time (1946), over which, after the “economic boom”, a process of radicalization (due to the growing of the social struggles in the fields of the local community, work, school and the University, generated by a brutal and unbalanced modernization of the town) is established. Our research, so showed that the various “experiments of antagonism” matured within this vast social protest, were used finally as incubators where part of the roman extremist militancy, resulting from the end of ’68 mobilization, was initiated with various subversive practices (in particular, the repertoires of the mass illegality and of the clandestine guerrilla). Considering of all these levels and these dimensions highlighted the characteristics of the political violence deployed in Rome after ’68, while allotting the right proportion to the “weight” of the capital of Italy in the national deployment of the “strategy of the tension” (1969-1974) and the “years of lead” (1975-1982). This research thus strives to reconstruct a comprehensive historical framework, putting of diachronic connection the facts and the dynamic of the metropolis (social economic, cultural, ideological, political and urban factors) with the State system based in Rome – characterized by the pressures of the “iron curtain”, the heavy after-effects of the fascist dictatorship and the civil war (1943-1945), the governmental frailty and the lack of national cohesion – along the years of modernization and of the entry in the age of abundance for Italy.
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Domenico Guzzo. Rome, l'inscription des violences politiques dans la ville au cours des années de plomb : (1966-1982). Histoire. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAH009⟩. ⟨tel-01692144⟩

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