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Représentations du leadership politique féminin et différences culturelles : comparaison entre la France et le Cameroun

Abstract : The aim of this thesis was to understand why despite the real demographic, political and economic qualities of women, despite the regulatory and judicial measures, Cameroonians and French citizens adhere very little to female political leadership. This thesis suggests to apprehend electoral intentions and electoral behaviors using the 2013 municipal and legislative elections in Cameroun and the 2014 municipal elections in France. Hence we argued that cultural differences portrayed by the representations of female political leadership can allow for the identification of Cameroonian and French citizens’ behaviors with regards to the presence of women in political positions.Three empirical studies for Cameroun on one hand (N=338) and for France (N=310) on the other hand were conducted. The construction of the questionnaire was mainly inspired by two approaches, namely the theory of planned behavior by Ajzen and Fishben (1985) and the representation of female political leadership by Vergès (1992;1994).In the first study (Cameroun and France), we observed that voting intentions in favor of female political leadership were all the more high that the representations were positive towards female political leadership. Likewise, when the electorates showed a positive attitude towards female political leadership, they perceived it as strength and thus portrayed a favorable intention towards the female political leadership. Female gender stereotypes (e.g. warmth, accommodating, maternal) induced positive political leadership representations in Cameroun; unlike in France. In other words, these representations mediated the link between attitudes, stereotypes and voting intentions in favor of female political leadership whereas in France these representations mediated only the link between attitudes and voting intentions. The second study (Cameroun and France) used the same data as the Study 1. Here, we examined the variations of voting intentions in favor of female political leadership with regards to adherence to beliefs, cultural values and subjective norms. We observed that in France, when participants adhere strongly to beliefs and cultural values, their voting intentions tend to be favorable towards female political leadership. However, we did not observe a link between adherence to beliefs and cultural values and favorable voting intentions towards female political leadership with the Cameroonian participants. Concerning Cameroonians, the representation of female political leadership was all the more favorable when they adhered strongly to beliefs and cultural values. With reference to the French participants, female political leadership did not vary significantly in function of their adhesion to beliefs and cultural values. In Cameroun as well as in France, when participants attributed importance to the viewpoints of people who are considered as experts in women political leadership and are motivated to conform to it, their voting intentions in favor of female political leadership was high. The results from this study also revealed that adhering to beliefs and cultural values as well as subjective norms was not mediated by the representations of female political leadership.The third study evaluated voting intentions in favor of female political leadership in relation to perceived behavioral control. We then examined the interaction between perceived behavioral control and electoral experience. The results were not conclusive for the two samples (France, Cameroun).Finally, the global model (Cameroun and France) was tested simultaneously with all variables of the three studies. The final conceptual model for Cameroun was confirmed by the results of the analysis. This model fitted with the data collected and proved to be the most parsimonious than the French model. These results conveyed an interesting contribution to the research and were discussed in light of existing theoretical knowledge.
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Emmanuel Wassouo. Représentations du leadership politique féminin et différences culturelles : comparaison entre la France et le Cameroun. Psychologie. Université de Yaoundé I, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAH005⟩. ⟨tel-01691968⟩

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