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Développement de nouvelles méthodes pour dépasser les limitations rencontrées dans le suivi de biosenseur FRET par microscopie de fluorescence quantitative

Abstract : Fluorescence microscopy has become an invaluable tool in biology. In particular, it allows to follow in time and space the activity of proteins, using genetically encoded FRET biosensors, in live cell imaging. In my thesis work, I have developed new quantitative fluorescence microscopy methods to overcome the limitations encountered in monitoring FRET biosensors. First, I developed a methodology to monitor simultaneously two genetically encoded FRET biosensors by lifetime measures (FLIM) with a single excitation wavelength. Previously, it was not easy to follow two biochemical activities by FRET biosensors in the same live sample by fluorescence microscopy. Two reasons for that: the existence of spectral bleed through in the detection channel of each fluorescent proteins and the use of two excitation wavelengths for the two donors. By combining two fluorescent proteins pairs: mTFP1 / ShadowG and LSSmOrange / mKate2, the “spectral bleed through” artifact became negligible. It became then possible to follow the kinase activity of PKA and ERK proteins simultaneously by FLIM. Using this methodology, we were able to show an activation of the PKA pathway upon stimulation with EGF. Second, I developed a method to monitor FRET biosensor by fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy technique (FCCS). Monitoring the activity of certain proteins may be difficult due to their low expression in living sample and their sub-cellular localization. The FCCS methods requires a low concentration of fluorophores and can therefore be adapted to these samples. FRET has a direct effect on the cross-correlation amplitude when it is measured by following the co-diffusion of two fluorescent proteins attached to a same biosensor. An amplitude ratio decrease, of the autocorrelation curves (green or red) on the amplitude of the cross-correlation curve, corresponds to the presence of FRET. We were able to measure this ratio decreases in cells expressing the FRET biosensor Aurora A wild type (FRET) compared to the K162M mutant one (non-FRET). These first results are very promising to monitor the activity of a weakly expressed protein in living cells biosensor using this approach. The improvement of FRET biosensor monitoring, by quantitative fluorescence microscopy methods presented in this work, will help to answer biological questions of interest requiring the measurement of multiplex FRET monitoring or biosensors at low level expression, where conventional techniques are facing these limitations
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Claire Déméautis. Développement de nouvelles méthodes pour dépasser les limitations rencontrées dans le suivi de biosenseur FRET par microscopie de fluorescence quantitative. Biologie moléculaire. Université Rennes 1, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016REN1B035⟩. ⟨tel-01691741⟩

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