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Associations entre les expositions environnementales et les issues de grossesse d’une part et la méthylation de l’ADN placentaire d’autre part

Abstract : Nowadays, air pollution and weather conditions represent a major public health issue. It is recognized that they may have serious consequences for health especially in the most sensitive populations such as pregnant women. More recent studies have suggested an effect of exposure to these environmental factors during the fetal period. Fetal life is a critical period for the healthy development of the child. Maternal exposure to environmental exposures during pregnancy could have serious consequences on pregnancy outcomes and short- and long- term health. Furthermore, the biological mechanisms that could explain the effect of environmental exposures on adverse pregnancy outcomes are largely unknown up to now. The objectives of the thesis were: 1) to study the association between maternal exposure to temperature and relative humidity during pregnancy and birth weight, gestational duration and preterm birth; 2) to study the association between maternal exposure to air pollutants and meteorological conditions during pregnancy and placental DNA methylation using A) an agnostic approach and B) a priori approach based on integration of biological knowledge. The first part of this work relied on data from two mother-child cohorts EDEN (Poitiers and Nancy, 2003-2006) and PELAGIE (Britain, 2002-2006) corresponding to 5185 mother-infant pairs analyzed; and the second part relied on a sample of the EDEN cohort for which methylation data were available (n = 668). Daily data of temperature and humidity were obtained from Météo-France and pollution data were obtained using a dispersion model. Their exposure was averaged over different periods during pregnancy. Central placenta samples were collected at delivery and DNA methylation was analyzed using Illumina 450K chip. For the first objective, linear regression models and Cox models were used. For the second objective, robust linear regression models, especially across the genome-wide, were used and correction methods for multiple testing such as Bonferroni and Benjamini-Hochberg were applied. Our results suggest a deleterious effect of temperature and relative humidity on birth weight and did not show an association between air pollution and pregnancy outcomes. Exposure to air pollutants (NO2 and PM10) during pregnancy was associated with a decrease in placental DNA methylation for ADORA2B and ADARB2 genes; the first gene is known to be potentially involved in preeclampsia and hypoxia of the pregnant woman and the second being potentially involved in metabolic disorders in adults such as abdominal circumference and BMI. The results of agnostic and a priori approaches were consistent for ADORA2B gene. We did not found association between weather conditions and placental DNA methylation. To our knowledge, we are the first to study the association between DNA methylation in the placental tissue and prenatal exposure to air pollutants and weather conditions using data from the entire epigenome. This work opens up new possible pathways regarding mechanisms of action of environmental pollutants and provides pointers as to the possible long-term effects of these exposures.
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Émilie Abraham. Associations entre les expositions environnementales et les issues de grossesse d’une part et la méthylation de l’ADN placentaire d’autre part. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016GREAS018⟩. ⟨tel-01691724⟩

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