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Role of Poly-(ADP-ribose)-ylation signaling pathway in the chromatin remodeling after DNA damage

Abstract : In each human cell, many thousands of DNA lesions arise every day, challenging continuously the genome integrity. The majority of these lesions results from byproducts of normal cell metabolism or DNA replication, but they are also induced by exposure to radiations and genotoxic chemicals. The integrity of the genome is preserved by a plethora of different DNA damage signalling and repair machinery arranged by the cells. In the cell nucleus, DNA associates with scaffolding proteins to form the chromatin. The chromatin is tightly packed in the nucleus through several levels of organization. Such high-packing state poses a significant challenge for the repair machinery. Indeed, the damaged DNA needs to be accessible to repair proteins, and for that, cells have developed several mechanisms to allow the access to the damaged chromatin. The early steps of the DNA damage response involve the activation of proteins that are part of signalling pathways. One of the proteins activated upon DNA damage is PARP1, which synthetizes long and branched chains of ADP-ribose (poly-ADP-ribose or PAR) on itself and other chromatin factors, including histones. The activation of PARP1 leads to the recruitment of several effectors involved in DNA repair and chromatin remodeling. However the exact function of the PAR-signalling during early DNA damage response and in particular during chromatin remodeling at DNA breaks remains unclear. During my PhD, I used advanced fluorescent imaging tools to study in living cells the dynamics of chromatin in the nucleus at a local scale upon DNA damage. I used these tools to study PAR-dependent chromatin relaxation after DNA damage and to screen factors that selectively alter the dynamic behaviour of the damaged chromatin. This methodology allowed us to identify PAR-dependent factors involved in the local chromatin remodeling upon DNA damage.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, January 24, 2018 - 11:07:47 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01691649, version 1

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Hafida Sellou. Role of Poly-(ADP-ribose)-ylation signaling pathway in the chromatin remodeling after DNA damage. Molecular biology. Université Rennes 1, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016REN1B029⟩. ⟨tel-01691649⟩

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