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Dépression et Stimulation Magnétique Transcrânienne : à la Recherche de biomarqueurs (Oculométrie et Excitabilité Corticale)

Abstract : The aim of this doctoral thesis was to develop biomarkers for mood disorders (unipolar major depression and bipolar disorders). Considering mood disorders' etiology (Dorso lateral prefrontal cortex hypometabolism and GABA/glutamate neurotransmission deficits), we decided to study two biomarkers: saccadic performance and cortical excitability. Our results showed that saccadic performance (notably Antisaccades) allows (i) discriminating bipolar patients from healthy subjects, (ii) ascertaining patients' mood improvement, and (iii) evaluating the short-term neuromodulation induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.Regarding cortical excitability measurements, our results did not reveal any differences neither between patients and healthy subjects, nor between Responders and non Responders to a treatment (Ketamine injection or rTMS). We suggested that the null results could be explained by the lack of control of State-Dependency. This assumption was tested and validated through the manipulation of the subjects' cognitive and emotional states.A second aim of this doctoral thesis was to study the efficacy of rTMS, a non pharmacological therapeutic alternative, as a treatment for mood disorders. Meta-analyses showed that anti depressant effect of rTMS seems to be significant but still moderate. In our experiment, mood improvement did not differ between active and sham rTMS. Basic methodological reasons such as stimulation parameters could explain this lack of efficacy. Overall, one could wonder about the validity of the theoretical postulate of rTMS, drawn upon motor cortex reactivity. This postulate inferred that both cortical reactivity of motor cortex and DLPFC are similar. Using TMS-EEG coupling, we studied the reactivity of these cortices, to TMS pulses, which revealed that motor cortex and DLPFC reactivities should not be assimilated. This result calls into question the relevance of the rTMS theoretical postulate. Coupling TMS and EEG should allow a better understanding of the impact of rTMS neuromodulatory effect over the targeted area, and thus to a better adaption of the stimulation parameters, which could lead to an improvement of rTMS efficacy as a treatment for mood disorders.
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Lysianne Beynel. Dépression et Stimulation Magnétique Transcrânienne : à la Recherche de biomarqueurs (Oculométrie et Excitabilité Corticale). Neurosciences. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015GREAS043⟩. ⟨tel-01691610⟩

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