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Composants optoélectroniques à base d'alliages SiGe riches en Ge pour le proche et moyen infrarouge

Abstract : Today optical interconnects have overpassed wires on long, mid and short distances on the telecommunication field. Silicon photonics have known such a development that even inter and intra chip communications progressively become optical. However, the multiplication of data access terminals and the constant increase of data consumption force new components with even lower power consumption to appear. In this context, low power consumption components based on Ge/SiGe quantum wells have been developed. Until now, the use of Ge/SiGe quantum wells has been only limited to electroabsorption modulators. The first part of my thesis was dedicated to the study of a new kind of active region based on coupled Ge/SiGe quantum wells. This work led to the demonstration of giant electrorefractive effect in these structures. The active region based on coupled quantum wells gives a refractive index variation of 2.3×10-3 under a bias of only 1.5 V. The use of this effect for the development of integrated optical modulators needed the development of main building blocks to obtain interferometric structures. Compact bends and Mach Zehnder interferometers have been designed, fabricated and successfully characterized. The sensitivity to the polarization of these structures was evaluated with numerical simulations and polarization insensitive structures were designed. Then, an integrated electrorefractive modulator has been designed and fabricated which needed the development of a new technological process. The first charaterization results are presented. The perspectives of this work are the realization of an efficient modulator with switching voltage lower than 2V. The field of application of photonic integrated circuits is not only limited to the telecommunications. The approach based on integrated optics is also very promising for the identification and analysis of surrounding chemical species. Mid infrared spectral region is particularly suitable for this purpose as it contains specific absorption fingerprints of different chemical species. The use of photonic integrated circuits on silicon substrate allows to develop performant, compact and low cost spectroscopic systems. The second part of my thesis was focused on the development of wideband photonic platform based on Ge-rich Si1-xGex waveguides. Wideband waveguides between 5.5 and 8.5 µm were experimentally demonstrated which made possible the developpement of more complex structures such as MMIs or ultra-wideband Mach Zehnder interferometers. The same device has a theoretical bandwidth of 3.5 µm in TE polarization and of one octave in TM polarization. The operation was experimentally demonstrated between 5.5 and 8.6 µm and is only limited by laser spectral range. This work paves the way for future development of ultra-wideband spectroscopic systems on Ge-rich Si1-xGex platform. The last part of this work concerned second harmonic generation in Ge/SiGe quantum wells for mid infrared spectroscopic systems. First test devices have been designed and fabricated
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Vladyslav Vakarin. Composants optoélectroniques à base d'alliages SiGe riches en Ge pour le proche et moyen infrarouge. Optique [physics.optics]. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLS473⟩. ⟨tel-01690840⟩

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