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Pertinence et validations préclinique et clinique du modèle spontané canin de mélanome dans le développement thérapeutique en oncologie

Abstract : Pharmaceutical development is a long and fastidious process. In fact, each drug candidate has to meet with a certain safety criteria list, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics profiles need to be determined prior to first use in humans and market approval.For years, the pharmaceutical industry has been suffering from a lack of innovative molecules and thus despite the efforts and cost increases in R&D programs. And most novel drug candidates entering clinical trials fail to reach approval, largely because preclinical models used in development do not provide adequate information about their efficacy or toxicity. That’s why; more predictive models of efficiency in oncology, shaping more precisely the human pathology are needed.The study of novel drug candidates in dogs with naturally occurring tumors allows drug assessment in neoplasms sharing many fundamental features with its human counterparts, and thus provides an opportunity to answer questions guiding the cancer drug development path in ways not possible in more conventional models. Moreover, the strong homologies in clinical presentation, morphology, and overall biology between dogs and their human counterparts make companion animals a good model to investigate tumor process from ætiology to tailored treatments.The aim of this project was to validate the canine spontaneous tumor model, by combining preclinical and clinical approaches, in the comprehension of the underlying mechanisms of cancer from carcinogenesis to drug resistance and tumor dormancy and also the discovery of new tools essential for the prediction, diagnosis clinical follow-up and treatment.Metastatic melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of cutaneous tumors in humans. It constitutes 4 to 11% of skin malignancies and only 2% of the cancers of the epidermis. These highly immunogenic tumors hold a severe prognosis when metastasized and contribute to an immune anti-tumor reaction which could potentially lead to immune escape and resistance to most standard treatment protocols. And even if the 5-year survival has been improved to 50 – 80% over the past decades, its incidence is still in the rise with 7000 cases and 75% related deaths reported every year in France.In dogs, melanomas are one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancies of the oral cavity. These cancers account for 7% of all malignant tumors in dogs and 160000 reported every year worldwide. It also constitutes one of the most aggressive metastasizing tumors with a median post-surgery survival rate of 173 days.We developed and characterized immunucytochemically, pharmacologically and genomically two canine melanoma cell lines from naturally occurring dog tumors with distinct clinical profiles. A list of genetic alterations of these two profiles has also been established and is in accordance with the published literature, presenting same features as human tumors. And because tumor heterogeneity is responsible of resistance to treatment and relapse, we isolated and investigated cancer stem cell populations in our cell line models in order to identify the linked biomarkers which may constitute future potential targets for the expansion of the oncological therapeutic panel.In conclusion, due to its intact immune system, tumor niche and also because it shares the same environment as we do, the canine patient represent a promising opportunity in the advancement of cancer research, the acceleration of translation process and the setting up of more effective and less toxic molecules with dual benefits for the human and veterinary medicine toward better patient care.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01690816
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Submitted on : Tuesday, January 23, 2018 - 2:22:08 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, October 14, 2020 - 4:10:57 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Thursday, May 24, 2018 - 11:39:01 AM

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  • HAL Id : tel-01690816, version 1

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Zacharie Segaoula. Pertinence et validations préclinique et clinique du modèle spontané canin de mélanome dans le développement thérapeutique en oncologie. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LIL2S004⟩. ⟨tel-01690816⟩

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