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Etude de la synthèse des précurseurs majeurs à la synthèse des lipides membraniares : l'acide lysophosphatidique et l'acide phosphatidique chez Toxoplasma gondii

Abstract : Apicomplexa phylum includes a large number of obligate intracellular parasites responsible for important human and animal diseases, especially malaria and toxoplasmosis. There is current no efficient vaccine against these parasites. Severe toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, occurs in immunocompromised individuals and during congenital infection. T. gondii is dependent on large amounts of lipids for its intracellular development within the host cell. These lipids are acquired by a combination of host lipid scavenging and de novo biosynthetic pathways. T. gondii is able to de novo synthesis of fatty acid via a prokaryotic FASII pathway in the apicoplast, a relict non-photosynthetic plastid. Genome mining suggests that the apicoplast can generate phosphatidic acid, central phospholipid precursor. Our recent work confirmed that the apicoplast harbors the first step of PA synthesis via a glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase enzyme called ATS1 by homology to chloroplast enzyme, which generates lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). This essential LPA can be exported from the apicoplast for the de novo bulk synthesis of phospholipids sustaining parasite membrane biogenesis (Amiar et al. Plos Path. 2016). T. gondii genome encodes for two other acyltransferases named sn-acylglycerol 3-Phosphate acyltransferases (AGPAT). AGPATs ensure the second step of PA synthesis using LPA. In this work we showed that these enzymes are localized in the Endoplasmic Reticulum and the apicoplast (named AGPAT and ATS2, respectively). A genetic disruption of ATS2 using CRISPR-Cas9 strategy affects parasite growth and normal cytokinesis. Lipidomic analysis using mass spectrometry combined to stable isotope labelling of ATS2-KO reveals an important reduction of lipids containing apicoplast-generated fatty acid C14:0. However, an increase of lipids containing C16 and C18 fatty acids was observed, suggesting a compensation of ATS2 loss by AGPAT activity in ER. These data indicated an important collaboration between apicoplast and ER for lipid synthesis that involves massive lipid trafficking between the two organelles.
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Souad Amiar. Etude de la synthèse des précurseurs majeurs à la synthèse des lipides membraniares : l'acide lysophosphatidique et l'acide phosphatidique chez Toxoplasma gondii. Maladies infectieuses. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016GREAV077⟩. ⟨tel-01690808⟩

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