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Biodiversité et fonctionnement écologique des agroécosystèmes à base de manguiers à La Réunion

Abstract : In agroecosystems, the use of biodiversity for natural control of arthropod pests aims to propose an agroecological crop protection, as an alternative to current agrochemical protection. Our study focused on mango agroecosystems in Reunion Island, with the goal of understanding the factors that influence biodiversity and control of arthropod pests. This agroecosystem is characterized by a large diversity (797 arthropod species and 114 plant species) and our results highlight the positive bottom-up and top-down controls of biodiversity in communities. We also highlight the services provided by the dominant species of invasive ants in pest regulation. Two species provide a predation service, and one reduces the diversity of natural enemies of omnivores and appears to explain the negative relationship between omnivore diversity and predation. Finally, we highlight the positive effect of parasitoid diversity and predator diversity on, respectively, the abundance of Seychelles mealybugs and on predation in general. The only significant landscape effect measured in our work is the positive effect of the proportion of mango orchards on the abundance of South African citrus Thrips. These results allow us to identify two factors in the agroecological protection of mango orchards in Reunion: the management of diversified ground cover in orchards; and collective landscape management by limiting the proportion of mango orchards.
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2016lare0036_MJacquot.pdf
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  • HAL Id : tel-01690672, version 1

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Maxime Jacquot. Biodiversité et fonctionnement écologique des agroécosystèmes à base de manguiers à La Réunion. Biodiversité et Ecologie. Université de la Réunion, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LARE0036⟩. ⟨tel-01690672⟩

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