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Etude de l'asymptotique du phénomène d'augmentation de diffusivité dans des flots à grande vitesse

Abstract : In application, we would like to generate random numbers with a precise law MCMC (Markov Chaine Monte Carlo). The method consists in finding a diffusion which has the desired invariant law and in showing the convergence of this diffusion towards its equilibrium with an exponential rate. The exponent of this convergence is the spectral gap of the generator. It was shown by C.-R. Hwang, S.-Y. Hwang-Ma and S.-J. Sheu that the spectral gap can grow up by adding a non-symmetric term to the self-adjoint generator.This corresponds to passing from a reversible diffusion to a non-reversible diffusion. A means of constructing a non-reversible diffusion with the same invariant measure is to add an incompressible flow to the dynamics of the reversible diffusion.In this thesis, we study the behavior of diffusion when the flow is accelerated by multiplying the field of the vectors which describes it by a large constant. In 2008, P. Constantin, A. Kisekev, L. Ryzhik and A. Zlatoˇs have shown that if the flow was weakly mixing then the acceleration of the flow was sufficient to converge the diffusion towards its equilibrium after finite time. In this work, the speed of this phenomenon is explained under a condition of correlation of the flow. The article by B. Franke, C.-R.Hwang, H.-M. Pai and S.-J.Sheu (2010) gives the asymptotic expression of the spectral gap when the large constant goes to infinity. Here we are also interested in the speed with which the phenomenon manifests itself. First, we study the special case of an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck diffusion which is perturbed by a flow preserving the Gaussian measure. In this case, thanks to a result of G. Metafune, D. Pallara and E. Priola (2002), we can reduce the study of the generator spectrum to eigenvalues of a family of matrices. We study this problem with methods of limited development of eigenvalues. This problem is solved explicitly in this thesis and we also give a boundary for the convergence radius of the development. We then generalize this method in the case of a general diffusion in a formal way. These results may be useful to have a first idea on the speeds of convergence of the spectral gap described in the article by Franke et al. (2010).
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Thi-Hien Nguyen. Etude de l'asymptotique du phénomène d'augmentation de diffusivité dans des flots à grande vitesse. Mathématiques générales [math.GM]. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017BRES0072⟩. ⟨tel-01690353⟩

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