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Intégration d’un laser hybride DBR III-V/Si en face arrière d’une puce photonique

Abstract : Recently, Silicon Photonics has emerged as a solution for the mass manufacturing of optical transceivers addressing datacenter’s needs in terms of increasing data-rate and reduced cost. Several Silicon-Photonics platforms have been demonstrated using standard Si technology. While these platforms differ in many regards, they all lack a solution for a monolithically integrated light source. To solve this problem, the most commonly proposed approach consists in bonding an InP-stack onto a Si-wafer in order to fabricate a Hybrid III-V/Si laser. However, none of those demonstrations have been made with a standard CMOS-BEOL, preventing a proper electronic-photonic integration. To solve the topographical problem induced by the additional layers, a new integration scheme, called Back-Side, has been developed and is presented in this document.First, the context of this study, a state of the art as well as the presentation of the Back-Side is discussed. The innovation brought by this integration, namely the bonding of the III-V on the back side of the SOI after the structuring of the latter, is then detailed.The correct behavior of a key element to the photonic chip, the grating coupler, is then treated through simulations, fabrication and optical characterizations. We have proved that, under specific conditions, this device has the same measured performances in Back-Side and in Front-Side.The principle of an optical oscillator and then the various modules composing the hybrid laser are then detailed. The implemented laser is based on a hybrid DBR (Distributed Bragg Reflector) III-V/Si cavity. In order to increase the mode confinement in the MQWS (Multi Quantum Wells) and hence ensure a high optical gain, the optical mode is gradually transferred between the III-V waveguide and the silicon waveguide of the hybrid laser by adiabatic tapers, patterned on both sides of the gain zone, to finally be reflected by the mirrors DBR in the silicon.Finally, its manufacturing process is explained before its opto-electronic characterizations are presented. The electrically pumped lasers have been tested under continuous-wave current conditions and the generated light has been collected through the grating coupler to a multi-mode fiber. The fiber coupling losses has been measured to be higher than 10 dB. The output power is up to 1.15 mW at an injection current of 200 mA. The lasing threshold is 45 mA which corresponds to a current density of 1.5 kA/cm2 and the series resistance of the laser contacts is approximately 9 . The threshold voltage is 1.45 V.The laser spectra reflect its single-wavelength laser operation, for different injection currents, with a central wavelength corresponding to the Bragg wavelength of the mirrors. A Side Mode Suppression Ratio (SMSR) of more than 35 dB has been measured. A 4 nm wavelength shift has been observed when injecting 20 mA into both metallic heaters above DBRs.The monolithic integration of a fully CMOS compatible hybrid DBR laser on the backside of a SOI wafer being demonstrated for the first time, implementing CMOS compatible electric interconnects and optical sources on a same chip has could be achieved. This device opens the route to a fully integrated optical transceiver on a Si platform.
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Submitted on : Monday, January 22, 2018 - 3:44:08 PM
Last modification on : Friday, March 25, 2022 - 9:41:35 AM
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Jocelyn Durel. Intégration d’un laser hybride DBR III-V/Si en face arrière d’une puce photonique. Optique [physics.optics]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAT026⟩. ⟨tel-01689987⟩



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