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Identification of the environmental impacts contributors related to the use of Additive Manufacturing technologies

Kléber da Silva Barros 1
1 G-SCOP_CPP [2016-2019] - Conception Produit Process [2016-2019]
G-SCOP - Laboratoire des sciences pour la conception, l'optimisation et la production
Abstract : The subject of the environmental impacts related to Additive Manufacturing is evolving and far from being consolidated. This thesis tries to answer the following question: How to identify and control the environmental impacts associated to the use of Additive Manufacturing technologies? An approach centred on scenarios was applied. Three specific scenarios were identified and studied: 1) Personal Fabrication; 2) Business use of AM and 3) Industrial use of AM. Literature analysis and the use of the Life Cycle Assessment-LCA approach provided accurate data to identify the different hotspots of environmental impacts in each scenario.In the Personal Fabrication case, the study highlights the importance of placing a greater focus on the Human aspects. The way people use the technology often generates more impacts than the technology itself. In the ‘Business’ scenario the findings show that the energy consumed in Production phase is the most representative phase in terms of environmental impacts. Results from the ‘Industrial’ scenario using EBM technology suggests that the energy consumption of the Printing Process, the powder manufacturing, as well as the Post-treatment process are the main sources of the environmental impacts.The results of the three studies were analysed and gathered in such a way to design a systemic framework of impacts in the case of AM use. Four group of impacts drivers are recognised: The product and the Printing Process (Technical aspects) and the User’s level of experience in CAD and Printing (Human Aspects). For each group, several impact contributors are identified (product height, CAD use time, etc.). From this framework, an adapted LCA model was designed and a software concept was created to estimate the environmental impacts related to use of AM technologies.
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Kléber da Silva Barros. Identification of the environmental impacts contributors related to the use of Additive Manufacturing technologies. Chemical and Process Engineering. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAI034⟩. ⟨tel-01689798⟩

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