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Copolymères triblocs biodégradables PLA-b-PEG-b-PLA pour ingénierie tissulaire : Caractérisation et modélisation de l'évolution de leurs propriétés mécaniques au cours de leur dégradation par hydrolyse

Abstract : Tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary field that applies the principles of engineering and biological science toward the development of biological substitutes that restore, maintain or improve the development of a whole organ by tissue reconstruction. It consists in seeding an implant called scaffold with cells taken from the patient and cultivated in vitro. The cells will then colonize and recreate tissue that takes the shape of the scaffold. The scaffold is an architecture biomaterial specifically designed for a considered organ. The knowledge of mechanical properties of the scaffold is particularly important. Indeed, it often must be used as a mechanical substitute to the injured organ. Moreover, its mechanical properties must be compatible with those of the host tissue to allow a good tissue regeneration. The main advantage of using biodegradable materials is their degradation along the regeneration process. It means that the material no longer remains in the body at long term avoiding toxicity and inflammation risks. Among biodegradable materials, polymers are particularly interesting due to their large range of properties. A very good candidate for tissue engineering applications is the PLA-b-PEG-b-PLA biodegradable triblock copolymer. This polymer is biocompatible and possesses a good properties modulation. To allow a good tissue reconstruction, the knowledge of the mechanical properties of the scaffold as well as their evolution during degradation is essential.The aim of this work is to characterize experimentally and model the mechanical behavior of the PLA-b-PEG-b-PLA and its evolution during degradation. The interest is to provide tools to size and simulate biodegradable scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. At first, tensile-relaxation tests has been realized on the polymer during different degradation times. In order to realize the mechanical tests in conditions closed to in vivo ones, a specific experimental device has been designed that allows From this tests, a linear viscoelastic model able to take into account the variations of mechanical properties during degradation for small strain has been developed. Then, in order to model the mechanical behavior in a larger range of strain, a non-linear viscoelastic model was realized. In a third part, different polymers PLA-b-PEG-b-PLA with different initial composition has been mechanically characterized in order to study the influence of the original structure on mechanical properties and their evolution during degradation. To finish, the degradable linear viscoelastic model will be used to simulate numerically the mechanical behavior of a knitted textile for potential applications in tissue engineering.
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Quentin Breche. Copolymères triblocs biodégradables PLA-b-PEG-b-PLA pour ingénierie tissulaire : Caractérisation et modélisation de l'évolution de leurs propriétés mécaniques au cours de leur dégradation par hydrolyse. Biomatériaux. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016GREAI068⟩. ⟨tel-01689766⟩

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