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Effets plasmoniques induits par des nanostructures d’argent sur des couches minces de silicium

Romain Mailhes 1
1 INL - PV - INL - Photovoltaïque
INL - Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon
Abstract : Thin-film photovoltaics focus on lowering the cost reduction of photovoltaic energy through the significant reduction of raw materials used. In the case of thin-films crystalline silicon, the reduction of the thickness of the cell is linked to a drastic decrease of the absorption, particularly for the higher wavelengths. This decrease of the absorption can be fought through the use of several different light trapping methods, and the use of plasmonic effects induced by metallic nanostructures is one of them. In this work, we study the influence of a periodic array of silver nanostructures on the absorption of a silicon layer. This work is decomposed into two main axes. First, the influence of the plasmonic effects on the silicon absorption is highlighted through different numerical simulations performed by the FDTD method. Both finite and infinite arrays of silver nanostructures, located at the rear side of a thin silicon layer, are studied. By varying the parameters of the array, we show that the silicon absorption can be improved in the near infrared spectral region, over a wide range of wavelengths. The second part of the thesis is dedicated to the fabrication of such modeled structures. Two different approaches have been explored and developed inside the lab. For each of these two strategies, three major building blocks have been identified: (i) definition of the future array pattern through a mask, (ii) etching of the pattern in the silicon layer and (iii) filling of the pores with silver in order to form the metallic array of nanostructures. In the first fabrication method, an anodic alumina mask, produced by the electrochemical anodization of an aluminium layer, is used in order to define the dimensions of the metallic array. A metal assisted chemical etching is then performed to produce the pores inside the silicon, which will then be filled with silver through a wet chemical process. The second fabrication method developed involves the use of holographic lithography to produce the mask, the pores in silicon are formed by reactive ion etching and they are filled during an electroless silver deposition step. The fabricated plasmonic substrates are optically characterized using an integrating sphere, and transmission, reflection and absorption are measured. All the characterized plasmonic substrates shown a decrease of their reflection and transmission and an absorption enhancement at the largest wavelengths.
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  • HAL Id : tel-01688513, version 1

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Romain Mailhes. Effets plasmoniques induits par des nanostructures d’argent sur des couches minces de silicium. Electromagnétisme. Université de Lyon, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LYSEI097⟩. ⟨tel-01688513⟩

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