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Optimisation de tournées de véhicules par programmation par contraintes : conception et développement d'un solveur industriel

Sylvain Ducomman 1
1 G-SCOP_ROSP [2016-2019] - Recherche Opérationnelle pour les Systèmes de Production [2016-2019]
G-SCOP - Laboratoire des sciences pour la conception, l'optimisation et la production
Abstract : Vehicle routing problems are very hard combinatorial optimization problems with significant economic and environmental challenges. The fundamental problem is to visit a set of customers with a given fleet of vehicles in order to minimize the total distance travelled. Moreover, these problems arise with a wide variety of objectives and additional constraints, related to the legislation and the diversity of industrial sectors. They are very common for many industries and the design of generic solvers has become an important research issue.This thesis focuses on the design and implementation of a new solver for the vehicle routing services offered by the company GEOCONCEPT. The proposed solver is based on constraint programming (CP) to improve flexibility (ability to take additional constraints into account), declarative modelling and maintenance, which are the limits of current GEOCONCEPT solvers based on local search.Firstly, a graph model is established to provide a common representation of the input-data and the numerous business constraints. The resolution is performed using large neighbourhood search methods available in modern CP solvers. It is thus possible to deal with large instances efficiently with a declarative approach where a broad class of vehicle routing problems can be modelled. Secondly, several CP models based on redundant views of the problem are proposed to strengthen the filtering. We focus on the filtering mechanisms for removing infeasible or suboptimal values in the domains of the variables. These algorithms can quickly simplify the problem and derive lower bounds to assert the quality of the solutions found. The lower bounds are obtained by solving relaxations of the most famous problem in Operations Research: the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). This problem is the core of the global constraint WEIGTEHDCIRCUIT for modelling routing problems in CP. We propose new filtering algorithms for this constraint based on three relaxations of the TSP. These relaxations are compared theoretically and experimentally. The originality of this work is to propose a new filtering algorithm for reasoning on the direct successors of a customer as well as his position in the tour. It is particularly useful in the presence of time window constraints, which are very common in industrial problems.The new solver shows excellent performance on academic and industrial problems and can compute informative lower bounds for real-life problems.
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Sylvain Ducomman. Optimisation de tournées de véhicules par programmation par contraintes : conception et développement d'un solveur industriel. Génie mécanique [physics.class-ph]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAI009⟩. ⟨tel-01688288⟩

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