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Effets de la carbonisation oxygénée sur le signal isotopique (δ13C) du bois : vers une dendroclimatologie isotopique sur charbons archéologiques

Abstract : Archeological charcoals are used for reconstructing past woodland vegetation and the related historical forest practices. Charcoals δ13C are used for paleoclimate reconstructions. To better constrain the use of δ13C, we investigated the effect of oxygenated carbonization on ring scale δ13C variations in oak wood. Results showed a significant decrease of δ13C values after carbonization. This effect, however, is highly variable according to the wood compartment considered: heartwood, sapwood, earlywood, or latewood. Carbon content measurements do not exhibit the same variations along oxygenated carbonization as observed with δ13C. Therefore, the use of carbon content for evaluating carbonization effects on δ13C, which is proposed by some authors, is not appropriate. Interannual and seasonal δ13C variations, however, are not significantly affected by oxygenated carbonization. Thus, paleoclimate reconstruction from charcoals δ13C appears possible. To test both ring scale variations, archeological charcoals were sampled from a climatically well documented Neolithic site of Chalain. Several dendro-anthracological parameters (latewood proportion, duraminization, charcoal-pith distance estimation) were characterized for a better understanding of δ13C variations, in order to integrate historical woodland practices and the climatic interpretations. Charcoal tree-rings exhibited width and δ13C significantly different between the two studied periods, in agreement with previously inferred climatic difference. Intra-ring δ13C suggested that the cool and moist climatic period also corresponded to higher seasonal contrast than the dryer climatic period. Dendro-anthracological parameters allow better understanding of δ13C variations between wood compartments and provide information on past woodland exploitations. To conclude, oxygenated carbonizations induce a decrease in wood δ13C values, but do not prevent the paleoclimate interpretations of δ13C variations in archeological charcoals.
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  • HAL Id : tel-01688086, version 1

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Franck Baton. Effets de la carbonisation oxygénée sur le signal isotopique (δ13C) du bois : vers une dendroclimatologie isotopique sur charbons archéologiques. Géochimie. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PA066236⟩. ⟨tel-01688086⟩

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