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Analyse des erreurs induites par une modélisation simplifiée sur l’évolution des combustibles REP Impact des fuites neutroniques dans les calculs cellules

Abstract : Scenario studies of an electronuclear fleet, as well as safety studies, are essential to explore the different nuclear strategies of the future. To carry out these studies, it is necessary to estimate the irradiation time of a given fuel and its composition during the electricity production campaign. These estimates are based on the simulations of nuclear reactors, for which the calculations of the evolution must be as representative as possible. The calculation schemes usually used are divided into two stages: a cell calculation to solve the neutron transport equation (deterministic or Monte Carlo simulation) followed by a core calculation (deterministic code) The cell calculation is a simulation of the evolution of an assembly under infinite conditions. Based upon this calculation, homogenized and condensed cross-sections along with scattering quantities are calculated as input data for the next stage, the core calculation. The cell calculation is therefore a fundamental step and must be representative of a core assembly evolution as much as possible. However, the approximations used for this model are numerous, especially the neutron leakages are neglected. The objectives of this work is to study the physical effects of neutron leakage and to compute the associated biases compared to an infinite assembly simulation. In the first part, the problem of axial neutron leakage will be broached. In this case, neutron leakage causes a strong variation of the neutron spectrum in the last centimeters of the assembly as well as a smaller variation but over the entire assembly. The second part deals with the radial leakage. The effect of the neighboring assemblies and the particular behavior of the assemblies in the peripheral position are studied. Moreover, the isotopic composition biases at the end of the cycle are quantified. In the third and last part, a simplified calculation of the evolution of a reactor enables to visualize all the observed physical effects impacting the evolution of the irradiation. Several other approximations of the cell calculation are still to be investigated, such as the reactivity monitoring through the concentration of thermal neutron poison dissolved in the moderator or present in the fuel. Nonetheless, establishing of the physical phenomena taken into account for the cell calculation represents an essential first step towards an improvement of the cell calculation and may lead to new simulation methods for reactor cores. In the future, the quantification of the biases related to neutron leakage will be used to estimate the uncertainties on the isotopic composition of the fuel at the end of the cycle. These uncertainties, propagated into the scenarios studies, will assess the validity of the obtained results.
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Alice Somaini. Analyse des erreurs induites par une modélisation simplifiée sur l’évolution des combustibles REP Impact des fuites neutroniques dans les calculs cellules. Physique Nucléaire Théorique [nucl-th]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLS271⟩. ⟨tel-01687837⟩

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