Y. Docid, . Lineid, . Rawtext, and I. Inttype, Le deuxième fichier inclut les champs suivants : DocID, YearCoded, Gender, PrimCauseCode, Age, LocationOf- Death. Le troisième fichier inclut les champs suivants : DocID, YearCoded, LineID. La Figure 6.1 donne un exemple de documents fournis dans le corpus français CépiDC. Le septième champ contient le texte à annoter

L. De-même, D. Figuresyndrome, . Glisement, . Grabatisation, . Octobresyndrome et al., 64185;2013;2;85;2;5;6-1;syndrome glissement;R453 64185;2013;2;85;2;5;6-1;grabatisation;R263 79317;2013;2;85;2;6;héùorragie digestive basse sur surdosage en AVK;3;5;6-3;hémorragie digestive basse;K921 79317;2013;2;85;2;6;héùorragie digestive basse sur surdosage en AVK;3;5;6-3;surdosage avk;X44 64370;2013;1;80;2;5;ABCES CERVICAL, LARYNGECTOMIE TOTALE.ATCD D'IDM.;NULL;NULLZ900ABCES CERVICAL . LARYNGECTOMIE TOTALE.ATCD D'IDM.;NULL;NULLL021, vol.4343, issue.6437018025, p.258, 2012.

C. Cabot, L. F. Soualmia, J. Grosjean, R. Lelong, and S. J. Darmoni, «Integrating and Retrieving Clinical and Omic Data in Electronic Health Records», dans 7th International Workshop on Knowledge Representation for Health Care, KRH4C) and 8th International Workshop on Process-oriented Information Systems in Healthcare (ProHealth), pp.154-159, 2015.

L. F. Soualmia, C. Cabot, B. Dahamna, and S. J. Darmoni, «SIBM at CLEF e-Health Evaluation Lab 2015», dans CEUR-WS Working Notes of the Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum, 2015.

C. Cabot, L. F. Soualmia, J. Grosjean, R. Lelong, and S. J. Darmoni, 2015, «Integrating and retrieving clinical and omic data in electronic health records»

C. Cabot, M. Mary, C. Saad, A. Renaux, A. Bertrand et al., «GC-VC/DGE : a user-friendly web application for Going over Concordance across results from NGS bioinformatics analytic pipelines», 2014.

C. Cabot, M. Mary, C. Saad, A. Renaux, A. Bertrand et al., «GC-VC/DGE : a user-friendly web application for Going over Concordance across results from NGS bioinformatics analytic pipelines», 2014.

S. Coutant, C. Cabot, A. Lefebvre, M. Léonard, E. Prieur-gaston et al., «EVA : Exome Variation «IRIT : textual similarity combining conceptual similarity with an n-gram comparison method», Proceedings of the First Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics-Volume Proceedings of the main conference and the shared task, and Volume Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation, pp.552-556, 2012.

V. Bush, «As We May Think», The Atlantic Monthly, p.48, 1945.

C. Cabot, L. F. Soualmia, B. Dahamna, and S. J. Darmoni, «SIBM at CLEF eHealth Evaluation Lab 2016 : Extracting Concepts in French Medical Texts VII BIBLIOGRAPHIE with ECMT and CIMIND», dans CEUR-WS Working Notes of the Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum CLEF, pp.47-60, 2016.

C. Cabot, L. F. Soualmia, and S. J. Darmoni, «Intégration de données cliniques et omiques pour la recherche d'information dans le Dossier Patient Informatisé», dans Actes des 26èmes Journées Francophones d'Ingénierie des Connaissances (IC), associées à la Plateforme de l'Association Française pour l'Intelligence Artificielle, pp.183-193, 2015.

C. Cabot, L. F. Soualmia, and S. J. Darmoni, «SIBM at CLEF eHealth Evaluation Lab 2017 : Multilingual Information Extraction with CIM-IND», dans CEUR-WS Working Notes of the Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum, p.147, 2017.

M. J. Cafarella, A. Halevy, and J. Madhavan, Structured data on the web, Communications of the ACM, vol.54, issue.2, pp.72-79, 2011.
DOI : 10.1145/1897816.1897839

. California-healthcare-foundation, «Consumers and health information technology : a national survey», URL http://www.chcf.org/publications/2010/ 04/consumers-and-health-information-technology-a-national-survey, p.29, 2010.

J. Callan, J. Allan, C. L. Clarke, S. Dumais, D. A. Evans et al., Meeting of the MINDS, ACM SIGIR Forum, vol.41, issue.2, pp.25-34, 2007.
DOI : 10.1145/1328964.1328967

J. P. Callan, W. B. Croft, and J. Broglio, TREC and TIPSTER experiments with inquery, Information Processing & Management, vol.31, issue.3, pp.327-343, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0306-4573(94)00050-D

URL : http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~callan/Papers/callancroftipm94.ps.gz

E. Cerami, J. Gao, U. Dogrusoz, B. E. Gross, and S. O. Sumer, The cBio Cancer Genomics Portal: An Open Platform for Exploring Multidimensional Cancer Genomics Data: Figure 1., Cancer Discovery, vol.2, issue.5, pp.401-404
DOI : 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-12-0095

W. W. Chapman, W. Bridewell, P. Hanbury, G. F. Cooper, and B. G. Buchanan, A Simple Algorithm for Identifying Negated Findings and Diseases in Discharge Summaries, Journal of Biomedical Informatics, vol.34, issue.5, pp.301-310, 2001.
DOI : 10.1006/jbin.2001.1029

W. Chebil, L. F. Soualmia, M. N. Omri, S. J. Darmoni, B. Chebil et al., 2015, «Biomedical Concepts Extraction based on Possibilistic Network and Vector Space Model», Artificial Intelligence in Medicine in Europe, vol.67, issue.4, pp.227-231, 2016.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-319-19551-3_29

R. L. Cilibrasi, P. M. Et, and . Vitanyi, The Google Similarity Distance, IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol.19, issue.3, pp.370-383, 2007.
DOI : 10.1109/TKDE.2007.48

C. Cleverdon, The CRANFIELD TESTS ON INDEX LANGUAGE DEVICES, Aslib Proceedings, vol.19, issue.6, pp.173-194, 1967.
DOI : 10.1108/eb050097

C. W. Cleverdon, The significance of the Cranfield tests on index languages, Proceedings of the 14th annual international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval , SIGIR '91, pp.3-12, 1991.
DOI : 10.1145/122860.122861

M. H. Coletti and H. L. Bleich, Medical Subject Headings Used to Search the Biomedical Literature, Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, vol.37, issue.4-5, pp.317-323, 2001.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJM198110153051605

URL : https://academic.oup.com/jamia/article-pdf/8/4/317/2150828/8-4-317.pdf

N. Collier, C. Nobata, and J. Tsujii, Extracting the names of genes and gene products with a hidden Markov model, Proceedings of the 18th conference on Computational linguistics -, pp.201-207, 2000.
DOI : 10.3115/990820.990850

M. Collins, N. Et, and . Duffy, New ranking algorithms for parsing and tagging, Proceedings of the 40th Annual Meeting on Association for Computational Linguistics , ACL '02, pp.263-270, 2001.
DOI : 10.3115/1073083.1073128

W. B. Croft, D. J. Et, and . Harper, USING PROBABILISTIC MODELS OF DOCUMENT RETRIEVAL WITHOUT RELEVANCE INFORMATION, Journal of Documentation, vol.27, issue.4, pp.285-295, 1979.
DOI : 10.1108/eb026672

M. Dai, «An Efficient Solution for Mapping Free Text to Ontology Terms», AMIA Summit on Translational Bioinformatics, p.44, 2008.

S. J. Darmoni, B. Thirion, J. P. Leroy, M. Douyère, and B. Lacoste, «Doc'CISMEF : a search tool based on "encapsulated" MeSH thesaurus», Studies in health technology and informatics, vol.84, issue.15, pp.314-318, 2001.

D. Moor, G. , M. Sundgren, D. Kalra, A. Schmidt et al., Using electronic health records for clinical research: The case of the EHR4CR project, Journal of Biomedical Informatics, vol.53, pp.162-173
DOI : 10.1016/j.jbi.2014.10.006

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01147042

A. Dehghan, Boundary adjustment of events in clinical named entity recognition, p.41, 1004.

L. Deléger, C. Et, and . Grouin, 2012, «Detecting negation of medical problems in French clinical notes», Proceedings of the 2nd ACM SIGHIT International Health Informatics Symposium, pp.697-702

L. Derczynski, D. Maynard, G. Rizzo, M. Van-erp, G. Gorrell et al., Analysis of named entity recognition and linking for tweets, Information Processing & Management, vol.51, issue.2, pp.32-49
DOI : 10.1016/j.ipm.2014.10.006

D. Detmer, M. Bloomrosen, B. Raymond, and P. Tang, Integrated Personal Health Records: Transformative Tools for Consumer-Centric Care, BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, vol.5, issue.1, pp.45-74, 2008.
DOI : 10.1136/jamia.1998.0050104

URL : https://bmcmedinformdecismak.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/1472-6947-8-45?site=bmcmedinformdecismak.biomedcentral.com

P. R. Dexter, S. Perkins, J. M. Overhage, K. Maharry, R. B. Kohler et al., A Computerized Reminder System to Increase the Use of Preventive Care for Hospitalized Patients, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.345, issue.13, pp.13-965, 2009.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJMsa010181

F. Dhombres, R. Winnenburg, J. T. Case, and O. Bodenreider, 2015, «Extending the coverage of phenotypes in SNOMED CT through post-coordination.», Studies in health technology and informatics, pp.795-799

F. Diaz, D. Et, and . Metzler, Improving the estimation of relevance models using large external corpora, Proceedings of the 29th annual international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval , SIGIR '06, pp.154-161, 2006.
DOI : 10.1145/1148170.1148200

L. R. Dice, Measures of the Amount of Ecologic Association Between Species, Ecology, vol.26, issue.3, pp.297-302, 1945.
DOI : 10.2307/1932409

D. Dibad and A. , Recherche d'Information Multi Terminologique au sein d'un Dossier Patient Informatisé, p.66, 2012.

S. Doan and H. Xu, «Recognizing Medication related Entities in Hospital Discharge Summaries using Support Vector Machine, Proceedings of COLING. International Conference on Computational Linguistics, pp.259-266, 2010.

B. Leroy, S. J. Thirion, and . Darmoni, «Enhancing the MeSH thesaurus to retrieve French online health resources in a quality-controlled gateway», Health Information and Libraries Journal, vol.21, issue.4, pp.253-261, 2004.

D. Dubois and H. Prade, «Possibility theory : qualitative and quantitative aspects», dans Quantified representation of uncertainty and imprecision, pp.169-226, 1998.
DOI : 10.1007/978-94-017-1735-9_6

M. Dupuch, F. Segond, A. Bittar, L. Dini, and L. F. Soualmia, 2013, «Separate the grain from the chaff : make the best use of language and knowledge technologies to model textual medical data extracted from electronic health records», dans Proceedings of the 6th Language Technology Conference, p.107

O. Egozi, S. Markovitch, and E. Gabrilovich, Concept-Based Information Retrieval Using Explicit Semantic Analysis, ACM Transactions on Information Systems, vol.29, issue.2, pp.8-34, 2011.
DOI : 10.1145/1961209.1961211

URL : http://www.cs.technion.ac.il/%7Eshaulm/papers/pdf/Egozi-Gabrilovich-Markovitch-TOIS2011.pdf

Y. Ephraim, L. R. Et, and . Rabiner, On the relations between modeling approaches for speech recognition, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol.36, issue.2, pp.372-380, 1990.
DOI : 10.1109/18.52483

J. Fan, N. Sood, and Y. Huang, 2013, «Disorder concept identification from clinical notes an experience with the ShARe, CLEF 2013 challenge», dans CEUR-WS Working Notes of the Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum, 2016.

B. Fernald, G. H. , E. Capriotti, R. Daneshjou, K. J. Karczewski et al., Bioinformatics challenges for personalized medicine, Bioinformatics, vol.11, issue.Suppl., pp.1741-1748, 2011.
DOI : 10.1110/ps.0217002

URL : https://academic.oup.com/bioinformatics/article-pdf/27/16/2323/709941/btr408.pdf

J. Finkel, S. Dingare, C. D. Manning, M. Nissim, B. Alex et al., Exploring the boundaries: gene and protein identification in biomedical text, BMC Bioinformatics, vol.6, issue.Suppl 1, pp.5-40, 2005.
DOI : 10.1186/1471-2105-6-S1-S5

J. Finkel, S. Dingare, H. Nguyen, M. Nissim, C. Manning et al., Exploiting context for biomedical entity recognition, Proceedings of the International Joint Workshop on Natural Language Processing in Biomedicine and its Applications, JNLPBA '04, pp.88-91, 2004.
DOI : 10.3115/1567594.1567614

E. A. Fox and S. Sharan, « A Comparison of Two Methods For Soft Boolean Operator Interpretation In Information Retrieval», cahier de recherche, p.50, 1986.

W. B. Frakes, R. Et, and . Baeza-yates, Information Retrieval : Data Structures and Algorithms, p.49, 1992.

M. Frixione, A. Et, and . Lieto, 2012, «Representing concepts in formal ontologies. Compositionality vs. typicality effects», Logic and Logical Philosophy, pp.391-414

E. Gabrilovich, S. Et, and . Markovitch, «Computing semantic relatedness using wikipedia-based explicit semantic analysis, IJcAI, vol.7, pp.1606-1611, 2007.

M. L. Gambarte, A. L. Osornio, M. Martinez, G. Reynoso, D. Luna et al., «A practical approach to advanced terminology services in health information systems, », Studies in health technology and informatics, vol.129, pp.621-625, 2007.

T. Ganslandt, S. Mate, K. Helbing, U. Sax, and H. U. Prokosch, Unlocking Data for Clinical Research ??? The German i2b2 Experience, Applied Clinical Informatics, vol.2, issue.1, pp.116-93, 2011.
DOI : 10.4338/ACI-2010-09-CR-0051

N. Garcelon, R. Salomon, and A. Burgun, 2014, «Enrichissement sémantique associé à la détection de la négation et des antécédents familiaux dans un entrepôt de données hospitalier.», dans JFIM, pp.83-93

S. Gindl, K. Kaiser, and S. Miksch, «Syntactical negation detection in clinical practice guidelines.», Studies in health technology and informatics, pp.187-192, 2008.

N. Griffon, Modélisation, création et évaluation de flux de terminologies et de terminologies d'interface : application à la production d'examens complémentaires de biologie et d'imagerie médicale, p.27, 2013.

N. Griffon, M. Schuers, and S. J. Darmoni, «LiSSa : An alternative in French to browse health scientific literature ?, Presse medicale, pp.955-956, 1983.

N. Griffon, M. Schuers, L. F. Soualmia, J. Grosjean, G. Kerdelhué et al., A Search Engine to Access PubMed Monolingual Subsets: Proof of Concept and Evaluation in French, Journal of Medical Internet Research, vol.394, issue.1, pp.12-271, 2014.
DOI : 10.3163/1536-5050.100.3.007

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01329375

J. Grosjean, Modélisation, réalisation et évaluation d'un portail multiterminologique multi-discipline, multi-lingue (3M) dans le cadre de la Plateforme d'Indexation Régionale (PlaIR), thèse de doctorat, p.105, 2014.

J. Grosjean, T. Merabti, B. Dahamna, I. Kergourlay, B. Thirion et al., «Health multi-terminology portal : a semantic added-value for patient safety, », Studies in health technology and informatics, vol.166, issue.4, pp.129-138, 2011.

C. Grouin, 2014, «Biomedical entity extraction using machine-learning based approaches», dans Proceedings of LREC 2014, pp.611-651

T. R. Gruber, «A translation approach to portable ontology specifications», Knowledge acquisition, pp.199-220, 1993.

T. R. Gruber, «Toward principles for the design of ontologies used for knowledge sharing ?», International journal of human-computer studies, pp.5-6, 1995.

J. D. Halamka, K. D. Mandl, and P. C. Tang, Early Experiences with Personal Health Records, Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, vol.316, issue.5826, pp.1-7, 2008.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1135489

URL : https://academic.oup.com/jamia/article-pdf/15/1/1/2339173/15-1-1.pdf

P. A. Hall, G. R. Et, and . Dowling, Approximate String Matching, ACM Computing Surveys, vol.12, issue.4, pp.381-402, 1980.
DOI : 10.1145/356827.356830

J. S. Hamid, P. Hu, N. M. Roslin, V. Ling, C. M. Greenwood et al., «Data integration in genetics and genomics : methods and challenges .», Human genomics and proteomics, pp.1-13, 2009.

A. Hamosh, A. F. Scott, J. S. Amberger, C. A. Bocchini, and V. A. Mckusick, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), a knowledgebase of human genes and genetic disorders, Nucleic Acids Research, vol.33, issue.Database issue, pp.514-521, 2005.
DOI : 10.1093/nar/gki033

H. Harkema, J. N. Dowling, T. Thornblade, and W. W. Chapman, ConText: An algorithm for determining negation, experiencer, and temporal status from clinical reports, Journal of Biomedical Informatics, vol.42, issue.5, pp.839-851, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jbi.2009.05.002

URL : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbi.2009.05.002

W. Hersh, Information Retrieval : A Health and Biomedical Perspective, Health Informatics, vol.12, issue.13, p.14, 2008.
DOI : 10.1007/978-0-387-78703-9

K. M. Hettne, E. M. Van-mulligen, M. J. Schuemie, B. J. Schijvenaars, and J. A. Kors, Rewriting and suppressing UMLS terms for improved biomedical term identification, Journal of Biomedical Semantics, vol.1, issue.1, pp.5-45, 2010.
DOI : 10.1186/2041-1480-1-5

URL : https://jbiomedsem.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/2041-1480-1-5?site=jbiomedsem.biomedcentral.com

D. Hiemstra, W. Et, and . Kraaij, «Twenty-One in ad-hoc and CLIR», dans Proceedings of TREC-7, Proc. of TREC-7, pp.500-540, 1998.

A. Hoerbst and E. Ammenwerth, Electronic Health Records, Methods of Information in Medicine, vol.49, issue.4, pp.320-336, 2010.
DOI : 10.3414/ME10-01-0038

B. L. Humphreys, D. A. Lindberg, H. M. Schoolman, and G. O. Barnett, The Unified Medical Language System: An Informatics Research Collaboration, «The Unified Medical Language System : an informatics research collaboration.», pp.1-11, 1998.
DOI : 10.1136/jamia.1997.0040254

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc61271?pdf=render

I. Iakovidis, Towards personal health record: current situation, obstacles and trends in implementation of electronic healthcare record in Europe1Disclaimer: The view developed in this paper is that of the author and does not necessarily reflect the position of the European Commission.1, International Journal of Medical Informatics, vol.52, issue.1-3, pp.105-115, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S1386-5056(98)00129-4

A. Islam and D. Inkpen, Semantic text similarity using corpus-based word similarity and string similarity, ACM Transactions on Knowledge Discovery from Data, vol.2, issue.2, pp.10-25, 2008.
DOI : 10.1145/1376815.1376819

URL : http://www.site.uottawa.ca/~mdislam/publications/tkdd.pdf

S. V. Iyer, R. Harpaz, P. Lependu, A. Bauer-mehren, and N. H. Shah, Mining clinical text for signals of adverse drug-drug interactions, Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, vol.21, issue.2, pp.353-362
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002457

P. Jaccard, «Etude comparative de la distribution florale dans une portion des Alpes et des Jura», Bull Soc Vaudoise Sci Nat, vol.37, pp.547-579, 1901.

M. Jamoulle, «Using the International Classification for Primary Care (ICPC) and the Core Content Classification for General Practice (3CGP) to classify conference abstracts», Rev Port Med Geral Fam, vol.29, issue.5, pp.66-67, 2013.

M. A. Jaro, Probabilistic linkage of large public health data files, Statistics in Medicine, vol.40, issue.5-7, pp.5-7, 1995.
DOI : 10.1145/368996.369026

M. A. Jaro, 2012, «Advances in Record-Linkage Methodology as Applied to Matching the 1985 Census of Tampa, Florida», Journal of the American Statistical Association, vol.84, pp.406-414

A. Jimeno, E. Jimenez-ruiz, V. Lee, S. Gaudan, R. Berlanga et al., Assessment of disease named entity recognition on a corpus of annotated sentences, BMC Bioinformatics, vol.9, issue.Suppl 3, pp.3-42, 2008.
DOI : 10.1186/1471-2105-9-S3-S3

E. K. Johnson, S. Broder-fingert, P. Tanpowpong, J. Bickel, J. R. Lightdale et al., Use of the i2b2 research query tool to conduct a matched case???control clinical research study: advantages, disadvantages and methodological considerations, BMC Medical Research Methodology, vol.15, issue.1, pp.16-34
DOI : 10.1197/jamia.M2438

K. S. Jones, A STATISTICAL INTERPRETATION OF TERM SPECIFICITY AND ITS APPLICATION IN RETRIEVAL, Journal of Documentation, vol.28, issue.1, pp.11-21, 1972.
DOI : 10.1002/asi.5090180209

R. A. Jydstrup, M. J. Et, and . Gross, «Cost of information handling in hospitals, Health services research, pp.235-271, 1966.

D. Karlsson, M. Nyström, and R. Cornet, 2014, «Does SNOMED CT postcoordination scale ?», Studies in health technology and informatics, pp.1048-1052

R. Kleinsorge, J. Et, and . Willis, «Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Basics», National Library of, Medicine. xiii, vol.20, issue.21, p.22, 2008.

I. S. Kohane, Using electronic health records to drive discovery in disease genomics, Nature Reviews Genetics, vol.243, issue.6, pp.417-428, 2011.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.243.8.756

G. A. Komatsoulis, D. B. Warzel, F. W. Hartel, K. Shanbhag, and R. Chilukuri, caCORE version 3: Implementation of a model driven, service-oriented architecture for semantic interoperability, Journal of Biomedical Informatics, vol.41, issue.1, pp.106-123, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jbi.2007.03.009

B. Koopman, P. D. Bruza, L. Sitbon, and M. Lawley, Towards Semantic Search and Inference in Electronic Medical Records: an approach using concept based information retreival, Australasian Medical Journal, vol.5, issue.9, pp.482-56
DOI : 10.4066/AMJ.2012.1362

I. Korkontzelos, D. Piliouras, A. W. Dowsey, and S. Ananiadou, Boosting drug named entity recognition using an aggregate classifier, Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, vol.65, issue.2, pp.145-153
DOI : 10.1016/j.artmed.2015.05.007

URL : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.artmed.2015.05.007

J. Lafferty, A. Mccallum, and F. Pereira, «Conditional random fields : Probabilistic models for segmenting and labeling sequence data», dans ICML '01 Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Conference on Machine Learning, pp.282-289, 2001.

K. H. Lai, M. Topaz, F. R. Goss, and L. Zhou, Automated misspelling detection and correction in clinical free-text records, Journal of Biomedical Informatics, vol.55, pp.188-195
DOI : 10.1016/j.jbi.2015.04.008

T. K. Landauer, S. T. Et, and . Dumais, A solution to Plato's problem: The latent semantic analysis theory of acquisition, induction, and representation of knowledge., Psychological Review, vol.104, issue.2, pp.211-240, 1997.
DOI : 10.1037/0033-295X.104.2.211

E. S. Lander, L. M. Linton, B. Birren, C. Nusbaum, and M. C. Zody, Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome, Nature, vol.6, issue.6822, pp.6822-860, 2001.
DOI : 10.1089/cmb.1999.6.91

R. Lelong, C. Cabot, and L. F. Soualmia, 2016, «Semantic Search Engine to Query into Electronic Health Records with a Multiple-Layer Query Language», dans Proceedings of the 2nd SIGIR workshop on Medical Information Retrieval (MedIR, p.107

V. I. Levenshtein, «Binary codes capable of correcting deletions, insertions, and reversals», dans Soviet physics doklady, pp.707-710, 1966.

Y. Li, D. Mclean, Z. A. Bandar, J. D. O-'shea, and K. Crockett, Sentence similarity based on semantic nets and corpus statistics, IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol.18, issue.8, pp.1138-1150, 2006.
DOI : 10.1109/TKDE.2006.130

URL : http://semanticsimilarity.files.wordpress.com/2011/09/10-1109tkde-2006-130-authors-accepted-version.pdf

J. Lin, W. J. Et, and . Wilbur, PubMed related articles: a probabilistic topic-based model for content similarity, BMC Bioinformatics, vol.8, issue.1, pp.423-467, 2007.
DOI : 10.1186/1471-2105-8-423

Z. Liu, W. W. Et, and . Chu, Knowledge-based query expansion to support scenario-specific retrieval of medical free text, Information Retrieval, vol.41, issue.4, pp.173-202, 2007.
DOI : 10.7326/0003-4819-112-1-78

H. P. Luhn, A Statistical Approach to Mechanized Encoding and Searching of Literary Information, IBM Journal of Research and Development, vol.1, issue.4, p.48, 1957.
DOI : 10.1147/rd.14.0309

K. Lund, C. Et, and . Burgess, Producing high-dimensional semantic spaces from lexical co-occurrence, Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, vol.19, issue.2, pp.203-208, 1996.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01074363

URL : https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.3758%2FBF03204766.pdf

K. Lund, C. Burgess, and R. A. Atchley, «Semantic and associative priming in high-dimensional semantic space», dans Proceedings of the 17th annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society, pp.660-665, 1995.

P. Lyman and H. R. Varian, «How Much Information», URL http://groups. ischool.berkeley, p.12, 2003.

Y. Ma, J. Kim, B. Bigot, and T. M. Khan, 2016, «Feature-enriched word embeddings for named entity recognition in open-domain conversations», IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, pp.6055-6059
DOI : 10.1109/icassp.2016.7472840

S. Madhavan, Y. Gusev, M. Harris, D. M. Tanenbaum, and R. Gauba, G-DOC: A Systems Medicine Platform for Personalized Oncology, Neoplasia, vol.13, issue.9, pp.771-783, 2011.
DOI : 10.1593/neo.11806

URL : https://doi.org/10.1593/neo.11806

D. Maglott, J. Ostell, K. D. Pruitt, and T. Tatusova, Entrez Gene: gene-centered information at NCBI, Nucleic Acids Research, vol.35, issue.Database, pp.26-31, 2007.
DOI : 10.1093/nar/gkl993

URL : https://academic.oup.com/nar/article-pdf/35/suppl_1/D26/3893104/gkl993.pdf

J. J. Mamlin and D. H. Baker, «Combined time-motion and work sampling study in a general medicine clinic.», Medical care, pp.449-456, 1973.

C. D. Manning, P. Raghavan, and H. Schütze, Introduction to information retrieval, p.58, 2008.
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9780511809071

M. E. Maron, J. L. Et, and . Kuhns, On Relevance, Probabilistic Indexing and Information Retrieval, Probabilistic Indexing and Information Retrieval», pp.216-244, 1960.
DOI : 10.1145/321033.321035

M. Mary, Interopérabilité sémantique pour les données de diagnostic in vitro : représentation des connaissances et alignement, p.27, 2017.

I. Matveeva, G. A. Levow, A. Farahat, and C. Royer, Term representation with Generalized Latent Semantic Analysis, Proc. of RANLP, p.136, 2005.
DOI : 10.1075/cilt.292.08mat

A. Mccallum and W. Li, Early results for named entity recognition with conditional random fields, feature induction and web-enhanced lexicons, Proceedings of the seventh conference on Natural language learning at HLT-NAACL 2003 -, pp.188-191, 2003.
DOI : 10.3115/1119176.1119206

P. Mcconnell, R. C. Dash, R. Chilukuri, R. Pietrobon, K. Johnson et al., The cancer translational research informatics platform, «The cancer translational research informatics platform», pp.60-94, 2008.
DOI : 10.1186/gb-2004-5-10-r80

R. Mcdonald, F. Et, and . Pereira, Identifying gene and protein mentions in text using conditional random fields, BMC Bioinformatics, vol.6, issue.Suppl 1, pp.6-40, 2005.
DOI : 10.1186/1471-2105-6-S1-S6

E. Meij, D. Trieschnigg, M. De-rijke, and W. Kraaij, Conceptual language models for domain-specific retrieval, Information Processing & Management, vol.46, issue.4, pp.448-469
DOI : 10.1016/j.ipm.2009.09.005

URL : http://www.science.uva.nl/~mdr/Publications/Files/ipm2010.pdf

E. Menasalvas, C. Et, and . Gonzalo-martin, 2016, «Challenges of Medical Text and Image Processing : Machine Learning Approaches», dans Machine Learning for Health Informatics, pp.221-242

N. S. Miyoshi, D. G. Pinheiro, W. A. Silva-jr, and J. C. Felipe, Computational framework to support integration of biomolecular and clinical data within a translational approach, BMC Bioinformatics, vol.14, issue.1, pp.180-213
DOI : 10.1186/1471-2105-14-180

C. S. Mooers, «Coding, Information Retrieval, and the Rapid Selector», American Documentation, p.48, 1950.

J. Mork, A. Aronson, and D. Demner-fushman, 12 years on ??? Is the NLM medical text indexer still useful and relevant?, Journal of Biomedical Semantics, vol.2014, issue.2, pp.8-42, 2017.
DOI : 10.1186/s12859-015-0564-6

URL : https://doi.org/10.1186/s13326-017-0113-5

J. G. Mork, D. Demner-fushman, and S. Schmidt, 2014, «Recent Enhancements to the NLM Medical Text Indexer.», CEUR-WS Working Notes of the Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum, pp.1328-1336, 2014.

A. Moschitti, A study on convolution kernels for shallow semantic parsing, Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Meeting on Association for Computational Linguistics , ACL '04, pp.335-378, 2004.
DOI : 10.3115/1218955.1218998

S. N. Murphy, P. Avillach, R. Bellazzi, L. Phillips, M. Gabetta et al., 2017, «Combining clinical and genomics queries using i2b2 -Three methods, PloS one, vol.12, issue.33, pp.172-187
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0172187

URL : https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0172187

M. A. Musen, N. F. Noy, N. H. Shah, P. L. Whetzel, C. G. Chute et al., The National Center for Biomedical Ontology, Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, vol.19, issue.2, pp.190-195, 2012.
DOI : 10.1093/bioinformatics/btm112

URL : https://academic.oup.com/jamia/article-pdf/19/2/190/6073483/19-2-190.pdf

D. Nadeau, S. Et, and . Sekine, A survey of named entity recognition and classification, Lingvisticae Investigationes, pp.3-26, 2007.
DOI : 10.1075/bct.19.03nad

H. Navas, A. L. Osornio, A. Baum, A. Gomez, D. Luna et al., «Creation and evaluation of a terminology server for the interactive coding of discharge summaries.», Studies in health technology and informatics, pp.650-654, 2007.

S. B. Needleman, C. D. Et, and . Wunsch, A general method applicable to the search for similarities in the amino acid sequence of two proteins, Journal of Molecular Biology, vol.48, issue.3, pp.443-453, 1970.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-2836(70)90057-4

A. Névéol, R. N. Anderson, K. B. Cohen, and C. Grouin, «CLEF eHealth 2017 Multilingual Information Extraction task overview : ICD10 coding of death certificates in English and French», CLEF 2017 Evaluation Forum. xvi, pp.149-150, 2017.

A. Névéol, L. Goeuriot, and L. Kelly, 2016, «Clinical information extraction at the CLEF eHealth evaluation lab 2016», dans Proceedings of the CLEF 2015 Evaluation Labs and Workshop : Online Working Notes. xvi, p.148

A. Neveol, C. Grouin, J. Leixa, S. Rosset, and P. Zweigenbaum, 2014, «The Quaero French medical corpus : A ressource for medical entity recognition and normalization» , dans Bio text-mining workshop, p.113, 2014.

L. Ohno-machado, V. Bafna, A. A. Boxwala, B. E. Chapman, and W. W. Chapman, iDASH: integrating data for analysis, anonymization, and sharing, Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, vol.19, issue.2, pp.196-201
DOI : 10.1109/ICWS.2007.155

URL : https://academic.oup.com/jamia/article-pdf/19/2/196/6073770/19-2-196.pdf

C. Patel, J. Cimino, J. Dolby, A. Fokoue, A. Kalyanpur et al., «Matching Patient Records to Clinical Trials Using Ontologies», dans The Semantic Web, pp.816-829, 2007.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-540-76298-0_59

URL : http://iswc2007.semanticweb.org/papers/809.pdf

J. Patrick, Y. Wang, and P. Budd, «Automatic mapping clinical notes to medical terminologies», Australasian language technology workshop, p.43, 2006.

G. Pavillon, F. Et, and . Laurent, «Certification et codification des causes médicales de décès», Bulletin épidémiologique hebdomadaire, p.141, 2003.

S. Pereira, A. Névéol, G. Kerdelhué, and E. Serrot, «Using multiterminology indexing for the assignment of MeSH descriptors to health resources in a French online catalogue, dans AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings, pp.586-105, 2008.

J. L. Peterson, Computer programs for detecting and correcting spelling errors, Communications of the ACM, vol.23, issue.12, pp.676-687, 1980.
DOI : 10.1145/359038.359041

L. Philips, «The double metaphone search algorithm», C/C++ Users Journal, vol.18, issue.140, pp.38-43, 2000.

J. M. Ponte, W. B. Et, and . Croft, «A language modeling approach to information retrieval», Proceedings of the 21st annual international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval, pp.275-281, 1998.
DOI : 10.1145/3130348.3130368

M. Potthast, B. Stein, and M. Anderka, «A Wikipedia-based multilingual retrieval model», Advances in Information Retrieval, pp.522-530, 2008.

L. Ratinov, D. Et, and . Roth, Design challenges and misconceptions in named entity recognition, Proceedings of the Thirteenth Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning, CoNLL '09, pp.147-155, 2009.
DOI : 10.3115/1596374.1596399

URL : http://aclweb.org/anthology-new/W/W09/W09-1119.pdf

D. Ravindran, S. Et, and . Gauch, Exploiting hierarchical relationships in conceptual search, Proceedings of the Thirteenth ACM conference on Information and knowledge management , CIKM '04, pp.238-239, 2004.
DOI : 10.1145/1031171.1031221

URL : http://www.ittc.ku.edu/keyconcept/publications/CIKM04-conceptual.pdf

D. Rebholz-schuhmann, H. Kirsch, S. Gaudan, M. Arregui, and G. Nenadic, Annotation and disambiguation of semantic types in biomedical text, Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on NLP and XML Multi-Dimensional Markup in Natural Language Processing, NLPXML '06, pp.11-18, 2006.
DOI : 10.3115/1621034.1621037

S. E. Robertson, THE PROBABILITY RANKING PRINCIPLE IN IR, Journal of Documentation, vol.12, issue.4, pp.294-304, 1977.
DOI : 10.1016/0306-4573(76)90051-0

S. E. Robertson, K. S. Et, and . Jones, Relevance weighting of search terms, Journal of the American Society for Information Science, vol.30, issue.3, pp.129-146, 1976.
DOI : 10.1145/321921.321930

S. E. Robertson, S. Et, and . Walker, Some Simple Effective Approximations to the 2-Poisson Model for Probabilistic Weighted Retrieval, p.53, 1994.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4471-2099-5_24

D. L. Rubin, N. H. Shah, and N. F. Noy, Biomedical ontologies: a functional perspective, Briefings in Bioinformatics, vol.9, issue.1, pp.75-90, 2008.
DOI : 10.1093/bib/bbm059

URL : https://academic.oup.com/bib/article-pdf/9/1/75/827967/bbm059.pdf

W. M. Sachs, An approach to associative retrieval through the theory of fuzzy sets, Journal of the American Society for Information Science, vol.15, issue.2, pp.85-87, 1976.
DOI : 10.1002/asi.4630270203

S. K. Saha, S. Sarkar, and P. Mitra, Feature selection techniques for maximum entropy based biomedical named entity recognition, Journal of Biomedical Informatics, vol.42, issue.5, pp.905-911, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jbi.2008.12.012

URL : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbi.2008.12.012

G. Salton, Automatic information organization and retrieval, p.46, 1968.

G. Salton, The SMART Retrieval System?Experiments in Automatic Document Processing, p.52, 1971.

G. Salton, E. A. Fox, and H. Wu, Extended Boolean information retrieval, Communications of the ACM, vol.26, issue.11, pp.1022-1036, 1983.
DOI : 10.1145/182.358466

URL : http://ecommons.cornell.edu/bitstream/1813/6351/1/82-511.pdf

G. Salton, C. S. Et, and . Yang, ON THE SPECIFICATION OF TERM VALUES IN AUTOMATIC INDEXING, Journal of Documentation, vol.29, issue.4, pp.351-372, 1973.
DOI : 10.1145/321439.321441

E. Scheufele, D. Aronzon, R. Coopersmith, M. T. Mcduffie, M. Kapoor et al., «tranSMART : An Open Source Knowledge Management and High Content Data Analytics Platform.», AMIA Joint Summits on Translational Science proceedings, AMIA Joint Summits on Translational Science, vol.2014, pp.96-101, 2014.

B. Settles, Biomedical named entity recognition using conditional random fields and rich feature sets, Proceedings of the International Joint Workshop on Natural Language Processing in Biomedicine and its Applications, JNLPBA '04, pp.104-107, 2004.
DOI : 10.3115/1567594.1567618

URL : http://www.cs.wisc.edu/~bsettles/pub/bsettles-nlpba04.pdf

N. H. Shah, N. Bhatia, C. Jonquet, D. Rubin, A. P. Chiang et al., Comparison of concept recognizers for building the Open Biomedical Annotator, «Comparison of concept recognizers for building the Open Biomedical Annotator», pp.14-45, 2009.
DOI : 10.1186/1471-2105-10-S9-S14

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00492026

. Musen, «Ontology-driven indexing of public datasets for translational bioinformatics», BMC bioinformatics, vol.10, issue.2, pp.1-44, 2009.

S. T. Sherry, M. H. Ward, M. Kholodov, J. Baker, L. Phan et al., dbSNP: the NCBI database of genetic variation, Nucleic Acids Research, vol.29, issue.1, pp.308-311, 2001.
DOI : 10.1093/nar/29.1.308

K. Shimokawa, K. Mogushi, S. Shoji, A. Hiraishi, K. Ido et al., iCOD : an integrated clinical omics database based on the systems-pathology view of disease, BMC Genomics, vol.11, issue.Suppl 4, pp.19-35, 2010.
DOI : 10.1186/1471-2164-11-S4-S19

G. Sidorov, F. Velasquez, E. Stamatatos, and A. Gelbukh, Chanona- Hernández. 2012, «Syntactic Dependency-Based N-grams as Classification Features», dans Advances in Computational Intelligence, pp.1-11

B. Siklósi, A. Novák, and G. Prószéky, Context-aware correction of spelling errors in Hungarian medical documents, Computer Speech & Language, vol.35, pp.219-233
DOI : 10.1016/j.csl.2014.09.001

T. F. Smith, M. S. Et, and . Waterman, Identification of common molecular subsequences, Journal of Molecular Biology, vol.147, issue.1, pp.195-197, 1981.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-2836(81)90087-5

S. Sohn, S. Wu, and C. G. Chute, 2012, «Dependency Parser-based Negation Detection in Clinical Narratives.», AMIA Joint Summits on Translational Science proceedings, AMIA Joint Summits on Translational Science, vol.2012, pp.1-8

L. F. Soualmia, S. J. Et, and . Darmoni, Combining different standards and different approaches for health information retrieval in a quality-controlled gateway, International Journal of Medical Informatics, vol.74, issue.2-4, pp.2-4, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2004.05.012

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00845372

K. Spackman, «SNOMED clinical terms basics», cahier de recherche, p.24, 2008.

S. Jones, K. , S. Walker, and S. E. Robertson, A probabilistic model of information retrieval: development and comparative experiments, Information Processing & Management, vol.36, issue.6, pp.809-840, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0306-4573(00)00016-9

I. Spasi?, B. Zhao, C. B. Jones, and K. Button, KneeTex: an ontology???driven system for information extraction from MRI reports, Journal of Biomedical Semantics, vol.33, issue.1, pp.34-42, 2015.
DOI : 10.2307/2529310

L. D. Stein, Integrating biological databases, Nature Reviews Genetics, vol.4, issue.5, pp.337-345, 2003.
DOI : 10.1038/nrg1065

N. Stokes, Y. Li, L. Cavedon, and J. Zobel, Exploring criteria for successful query expansion in the genomic domain, Information Retrieval, vol.22, issue.22, pp.17-50, 2009.
DOI : 10.1136/jamia.1996.96236284

W. Sun, A. Rumshisky, and Ö. Uzuner, Evaluating temporal relations in clinical text: 2012 i2b2 Challenge, Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, vol.20, issue.5, pp.806-813, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jbi.2013.11.001

URL : https://academic.oup.com/jamia/article-pdf/20/5/806/17374624/20-5-806.pdf

S. Szalma, V. Koka, T. Khasanova, and E. D. Perakslis, Effective knowledge management in translational medicine, Journal of Translational Medicine, vol.8, issue.1, pp.68-95, 2010.
DOI : 10.1186/1479-5876-8-68

URL : https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5876-8-68

T. Takai-igarashi, R. Akasaka, K. Suzuki, T. Furukawa, and M. Yoshida, On experiences of i2b2 (Informatics for integrating biology and the bedside) database with Japanese clinical patients data, Bioinformation, vol.6, issue.2, pp.86-90
DOI : 10.6026/97320630006086

A. Tan, B. Tripp, D. Daley, B. Tang, B. et al., BRISK--research-oriented storage kit for biology-related data, «Evaluating word representation features in biomedical named entity recognition tasks.», BioMed research international, pp.2422-2425, 2011.
DOI : 10.1093/bioinformatics/btp431

URL : https://academic.oup.com/bioinformatics/article-pdf/27/17/2422/598223/btr389.pdf

L. Tang, S. Rajan, and V. K. Narayanan, Large scale multi-label classification via metalabeler, Proceedings of the 18th international conference on World wide web, WWW '09, pp.211-220, 2009.
DOI : 10.1145/1526709.1526738

URL : http://www2009.org/proceedings/pdf/p211.pdf

P. C. Tang, J. S. Ash, D. W. Bates, J. M. Overhage, and D. Z. Sands, Personal Health Records: Definitions, Benefits, and Strategies for Overcoming Barriers to Adoption, «Personal Health Records : Definitions, Benefits, and Strategies for Overcoming Barriers to Adoption», pp.121-126, 2006.
DOI : 10.1377/hlthaff.24.5.1180

URL : https://academic.oup.com/jamia/article-pdf/13/2/121/2170406/13-2-121.pdf

F. Thiessard, F. Mougin, G. Diallo, V. Jouhet, and S. Cossin, «RA- VEL : retrieval and visualization in ELectronic health records.», Studies in health technology and informatics, pp.194-198

M. Tkachenko, A. Et, and . Simanovsky, 2012, «Named entity recognition : Exploring features.», dans KONVENS, pp.118-127

D. Trieschnigg, Proof of concept, ACM SIGIR Forum, vol.44, issue.2, p.57, 2010.
DOI : 10.1145/1924475.1924500

D. Trieschnigg, D. Hiemstra, F. De-jong, and W. Kraaij, A cross-lingual framework for monolingual biomedical information retrieval, Proceedings of the 19th ACM international conference on Information and knowledge management, CIKM '10, pp.169-178, 2010.
DOI : 10.1145/1871437.1871463

URL : http://eprints.eemcs.utwente.nl/18213/01/CIKM.2010.trieschnigg.pdf

G. Tsoumakas, M. Laliotis, and N. , Markantonatos et I. Vlahavas. 2013, «Largescale semantic indexing of biomedical publications at bioasq», dans BioASQ Workshop, p.44

A. Turchin, N. S. Kolatkar, R. W. Grant, E. C. Makhni, M. L. Pendergrass et al., Using Regular Expressions to Abstract Blood Pressure and Treatment Intensification Information from the Text of Physician Notes, Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, vol.157, issue.21, pp.691-695, 2006.
DOI : 10.1001/archinte.1997.00440420033005

H. Turtle, W. B. Et, and . Croft, Evaluation of an inference network-based retrieval model, ACM Transactions on Information Systems, vol.9, issue.3, pp.187-222, 1991.
DOI : 10.1145/125187.125188

P. M. Valentine, A Social History of Books and Libraries from Cuneiform to Bytes, p.47, 2012.

E. Van-mulligen, Z. Afzal, S. A. Akhondi, D. Vo, and J. A. Kors, 2016, «Erasmus MC at CLEF eHealth 2016 : Concept recognition and coding in French texts», CEUR-WS Working Notes of the Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum, p.46, 2016.

C. J. Van-rijsbergen, «A non-classical logic for information retrieval», The computer journal, pp.481-485, 1986.

K. Vanopstal, R. Vander-stichele, G. Laureys, and J. Buysschaert, Vocabularies and Retrieval Tools in Biomedicine: Disentangling the Terminological Knot, biomedicine : disentangling the terminological knot.», pp.527-543, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/S0531-5131(01)00087-5

T. Viangteeravat, I. M. Brooks, E. J. Smith, S. Furlotte, R. Vuthipadadon et al., «Slim-prim : a biomedical informatics database to promote translational research.», Perspectives in health information management, pp.6-33, 2009.

E. M. Voorhees, D. K. Et, and . Harman, TREC, Communications of the ACM, vol.50, issue.11, p.60, 2005.
DOI : 10.1145/1297797.1297822

E. M. Voorhees, W. R. Et, and . Hersh, 2012, «Overview of the TREC 2012 Medical Records Track.», NIST Special Publication, p.61

C. P. Waegemann, Status report 2002 : electronic health records, Medical Records Institute, p.26, 2002.

C. P. Waegemann, «Ehr vs. cpr vs. emr», Healthcare Informatics online, vol.1, pp.1-4, 2003.

Y. Wang, J. Et, and . Patrick, «Cascading classifiers for named entity recognition in clinical notes», dans Proceedings of the workshop on biomedical information extraction, pp.42-49, 2009.

W. J. Wilbur, G. F. Hazard, G. Divita, J. G. Mork, A. R. Aronson et al., «Analysis of biomedical text for chemical names : a comparison of three methods, dans Proceedings of the AMIA Symposium, American Medical Informatics Association, pp.176-180, 1999.

L. Zadeh, C. Negoita, and H. Zimmermann, «Fuzzy sets as a basis for a theory of possibility», Fuzzy sets and systems, pp.3-28, 1978.

M. Zhong, X. Et, and . Huang, Concept-based biomedical text retrieval, Proceedings of the 29th annual international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval , SIGIR '06, pp.723-724, 2006.
DOI : 10.1145/1148170.1148336

G. Zhou, J. Et, and . Su, Named entity recognition using an HMM-based chunk tagger, Proceedings of the 40th Annual Meeting on Association for Computational Linguistics , ACL '02, pp.473-480, 2001.
DOI : 10.3115/1073083.1073163

URL : http://www.krdl.org.sg/General/Publications/Papers/ACL2002-NamedEntity-Zhougd.pdf

W. Zhou, T. Y. Clement, V. I. Torvik, and N. R. Smalheiser, «A Concept- Based Framework for Passage Retrieval at, Genomics.», NIST Special Publication, vol.8, p.57, 2006.

W. Zhou, C. Yu, N. Smalheiser, V. Torvik, and J. Hong, «Knowledgeintensive conceptual retrieval and passage extraction of biomedical literature», dans XXVII BIBLIOGRAPHIE Proceedings of the 30th annual international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval, pp.655-662, 2007.
DOI : 10.1145/1277741.1277853

D. Zhu, B. Et, and . Carterette, 2012, «Combining multi-level evidence for medical record retrieval», dans Proceedings of the 2012 international workshop on Smart health and wellbeing, pp.49-56
DOI : 10.1145/2389707.2389717