Etude des surfaces planétaires par imagerie hyperspectrale dans le proche infrarouge à l'échelle macroscopique avec OMEGA et à l'échelle microscopique avec MicrOmega

Abstract : Space exploration carried out through orbital and in situ missions enables us to highlight the great diversity of objects found in the Solar System. The properties of planetary surfaces and especially their compositions are excellent witnesses of the various endogenous and exogenous physical processes that have shaped these different bodies from their formation to the present day. My thesis is based on the multi-scale spatial exploration of the surfaces of two types of objects, the C-type asteroids and Mars. C-type asteroids are very primitive bodies and are thus recognized as excellent candidates to constraint the early stages of evolution of the Solar System. In particular, they should provide numerous insights concerning the presence of altered phases and organic matter during the primordial phases of the Solar System. As for Mars, its surface is fascinating especially thanks to the wide variety of minerals detected by various space probes. These minerals are tracers of many physical processes that have prevailed on the surface, allowing us to better understand the interactions between the different envelopes that are the internal structure, the surface, the atmosphere and the space environment of Mars. In the work I carried out during my thesis, I focused on the study of the surface mineralogy obtained by hyperspectral imagery, at a macroscopic scale with the OMEGA/Mars Express instrument for quantifying the abundance of minerals tracing the magmatic and volcanic activities on Mars and, at the microscopic scale, with the microscope MicrOmega, focusing on the calibration of the instrument and the characterization of samples in laboratory, within the framework of the future investigations of the Hayabusa-2 mission to the C-type asteroid Ryugu.Regarding Mars, the major results are the following. A new product based on the entire OMEGA instrument dataset acquired in the near infrared has been constructed, combining all the observations adapted to the study of mineral distribution at the global scale. This global 3D reflectance cube of Mars was used to produce new mineral maps providing a further step of analysis compared to past studies. A radiative transfer model was then applied to all spectra presenting mafic mineral signatures in order to quantify the abundances of minerals tracing the magmatic and volcanic activities. The global maps of pyroxenes, olivine and plagioclase presented in this thesis represent the first maps of modal mineralogy of Mars at a resolution of ~ 1.5 km/px. A classification method has highlighted the presence of several distinct mineralogical classes revealing a certain heterogeneity of the surface at different scales. The chemical composition was then calculated and compared with the orbital and in situ measurements.As part of the preparation of the Hayabusa-2 mission, I exploited the calibration data of the hyperspectral imaging microscope MicrOmega. The data reduction and analysis allowed us to derive the 4D transfer function (position on the field of view, wavelength and operating temperature) of the instrument in the full range of values of its functional parameters. The instrumental performances regarding to the identification were also validated: detection of absorption bands of the order of 1% in reflectance with an accuracy of 5 nm on the position of the band and a quantification of the overall reflectance level of the order of 20%. This calibration also highlighted the fact to carefully prepare in advance the operations so as to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio as a function of the functional and environmental parameters and, thus to interpret as much as possible the scientific data that will be acquired once on the asteroid surface. Finally, I also participated in various campaigns of measurements of natural samples with MicrOmega revealing the ability of this instrument to characterize samples at a microscopic scale (10s μm/px).
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Lucie Riu. Etude des surfaces planétaires par imagerie hyperspectrale dans le proche infrarouge à l'échelle macroscopique avec OMEGA et à l'échelle microscopique avec MicrOmega. Planétologie et astrophysique de la terre [astro-ph.EP]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLS378⟩. ⟨tel-01687352⟩

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