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Biosenseurs reposant sur l'AMPK et le FRET pour l'analyse du métabolisme énergétique : AMPFret

Abstract : AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a ubiquitous sensor of cellular energy and nutrient status in eukaryotic cells. It is expressed as heterotrimeric complexes comprising catalytic (α) and regulatory (β and γ) subunits. This large protein complex (130kDa), conserved from yeast to plants and mammals, functions as a central signaling hub and master regulator of energy metabolism and beyond. (Dys)regulation of AMPK signaling has been implicated in various pathologies. In particular, AMPK emerged as a suitable target to develop novel drugs for type II diabetes. Once activated AMPK will attempt to restore the energy homeostasis by down-regulating energy demanding pathways (anabolism) and up-regulating the energy producing ones (catabolism). AMPK is activated in vivo by multiple, complex mechanisms allowing fine tuning of AMPK activity in different situations of metabolic stress. First, AMPK activity is systemically modulated via activating phosphorylation at the α-subunit (by upstream kinases) and inactivating dephosphorylation (by upstream phosphatases). In addition, AMP and ADP binding to the γ-subunit increase AMPK phosphorylation. Second, AMPK is allosterically activated by AMP binding to the γ-subunit when the ATP/AMP ratio is falling. All these mechanisms require close communication between the γ- and α subunits, but a complete consensus model for AMPK activation is still lacking. We and others have proposed an AMP-induced conformational switch within the full-length heterotrimeric AMPK complex based on different, complementary structural studies. To further elucidate this mechanism, we have profited from these structural rearrangements to imagine and engineer an AMPK complex that allows a direct, real-time readout of the AMPK conformational state by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). A definite bottleneck in engineering multiprotein complexes is the exponential increase in work-load if several heterologous genes need to be altered, engineered and combined for revised protein complex production experiments. We used the ACEMBL technology which harnesses site-specific and homologous recombination techniques in tandem to facilitate rapid, iterative revision of multi-protein complex expressions after engineering and functional analysis of multiprotein complex. The resulting genetically encoded fluorescent biosensor, named AMPfret, can report conformational changes within the AMPK heterotrimer induced by nucleotide binding and the monitored FRET correlates with AMPK allosteric activation. The sensor responds to low micromolar concentrations of AMP, shows the exclusive ability of ATP, but not Mg-ATP, to compete with AMP, and allows insight into the role of CBS domains for allosteric AMPK activation. It may also be a tool of choice for AMPK targeted drug screening, and reporting the intracellular energy state.
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Martin Pelosse. Biosenseurs reposant sur l'AMPK et le FRET pour l'analyse du métabolisme énergétique : AMPFret. Biologie cellulaire. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015GREAV057⟩. ⟨tel-01686340⟩

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