# Approche mathématique pour la modulation de largeur d'impulsion pour la conversion statique de l'énergie électrique : application aux onduleurs multiniveaux

Abstract : The power electronic converters are increasingly exploited in particular in applications requiring variable speed machines. The use of more effcient and more powerful components coupled with new multilevel structures widens the fields of application and allows high efficiency functioning. These converters are able to manage, with a suitable control, the energy transfer between different sources and different receivers depending on the used converter family. In the control interface, a particular pattern is used to generate control signais for the switches, it is the modulation. Generally, the modulation strategy takes two forms : a Modulation based on comparaison modulating - caiTier (Carrier based Pulse Width Modulation, (CPWM)) or a Vector Modulation (SVM). The purpose of the PWM is to generate a signal which has a mean value as nearest as possible to the desired sinusoidal signal. The usual control by PWM, in the case of multi-level architectures, requires as many triangular carriers as there are cells to be controlled within an arm. The modulation strategy selection for each multilevel topology is based on optimizing criterias related to the quality of the produced waveforms after the conversion. The choice of the variable to implement in the PWM scheme requires expertise of the experimenter and refers little to the initial mathematical model that can be established to characterize the operation of the power electronics architecture. Concerning the vector strategies SVM, the lack of a compatible model with PWM inverters is observed. The three-phase inverters with two or N voltage levels can be modeled in the form of equations of a compatible linear system that is written as V= f(a) in the case of a sinusoïdal PWM and V= f(1) in the case of SVM, with V represents phase voltages, ais a duty cycle and fthe switching instants. In this basic configuration, it is found that the matrix linking these voltages duty cycles (or switching times) adrnits no inverse, which means that it is not possible with the usuallinear functions theories to solve this system in order to express the duty ratios (or the instants of switching) as a function of the reference voltages. This is the reason that today a number of practical implementations of modulation is done after experimental analysis of the consequences of strategy choices on the variables of interest. This study proposes the development of a generic formulation for the modeling of voltage inverters and especially multilevel inverters. The development of generic models for the implementation of modulation strategies is illustrated. The extension of the average model to the three-phase systems is performed to the usual structures of N levels such as the floating capacity and H bridge inverters. The idea is to generalize the model to the multi-level architectures, whether by the sinusoidal PWM modulation expressing the alpha as an output variable, or by the SVM expressing tau. This thesis aims to define a modeling approach and mathematically express the set of solutions in order to generate modulation strategies for various architectures of inverters studied. This will be done using a tool for solving linear systems. This resolution is based on finding degrees of freedom, to be identified at first, then express them in a second step by establishing the link with the criteria to optimize for given architectures. Two examples of application have been implemented on conventional two levels of voltage inverters and the thtree levels flying capacitor voltage inverter.
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• HAL Id : tel-01686191, version 1

### Citation

Karima Berkoune. Approche mathématique pour la modulation de largeur d'impulsion pour la conversion statique de l'énergie électrique : application aux onduleurs multiniveaux. Energie électrique. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016TOU30310⟩. ⟨tel-01686191⟩

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