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Cryo-microscopie électronique des complexes de l'adressage et de la translocation co-traductionnelle chez E. coli

Abstract : The cell membrane is the barrier that separates the interior of cells from the outside environment. It consists of lipids and proteins. Genes encoding membrane proteins make up about 30% of the genome. Membrane proteins are synthesized in the cytosol by ribosomes, but employ special pathways to integrate into the cell membrane. Ribosomes translating membrane proteins are recognized by special factors in the cytosol and targeted to the membrane. Subsequently, nascent chains of the membrane proteins are inserted into the lipid bilayer and are folded into their proper structures, a process termed translocation. The targeting process is mediated by the signal recognition particle (SRP) and its receptor, while the translocation is performed by a number of membrane protein complexes.This thesis describes two of the complexes involved in co-translational targeting and translocation in Escherichia coli: The ribosome-SRP-FtsY targeting complex in the “closed” conformation and the complex of a ribosome with the holo-translocon (HTL) consisting of seven membrane proteins. I mainly used electron cryo-microscopy to characterize these complexes. Cryo-EM allows structural determination of biological samples at sub-nanometer resolution in their native environment, without the need to crystallize the specimen. In this work, I took advantage of the recent advances in both the hardware and the image processing.Starting from a cryo-EM dataset obtained by group members, I have determined the structure of ribosome-SRP-FtsY complex in the “closed” conformation at 5.7 Å resolution. Different computational sorting strategies were applied to identify the most homogeneous sub-pool of the dataset. The structure shows a well-resolved SRP RNA and SRP M domain with a signal sequence bound. The interaction between SRP and ribosome could be modeled with high confidence. This structure also reveals that the SRP-FtsY GTPases are detached from the RNA tetraloop and are flexible, thus liberating the ribosomal exit site for binding of the translocation machinery.In the second project, different approaches were pursued to solve the structure of the ribosome-HTL complex at high resolution. An initial structure at 22 Å was obtained by mixing detergent-solubilized HTL with the ribosome, demonstrating that it is possible to preserve the complex under the conditions used for specimen preparation. I have then explored the use of nanodiscs and a new detergent called LMNG to stabilize HTL in detergent-free buffers. A second dataset was subsequently collected from a sample prepared by gradient-fixation, and the structure was solved at 17 Å. Sample preparation has been optimized further using amphipols. Two types of amphipol-HTL complexes were shown to bind to the ribosome, and higher resolution structures are expected to be obtained from these samples.
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  • HAL Id : tel-01686143, version 1



Qiyang Jiang. Cryo-microscopie électronique des complexes de l'adressage et de la translocation co-traductionnelle chez E. coli. Biologie moléculaire. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015GREAV058⟩. ⟨tel-01686143⟩