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Evaluation de l’efficacité thérapeutique d’un nouvel inhibiteur des LIM Kinases « Pyr1 » dans le cancer du sein

Abstract : Breast cancer is the most common diagnosed cancer in women worldwide with an increase of 20% and 14% in terms of incidence and mortality, respectively, in 2008 (GLOBOCAN, 2012). This increase is mainly due to the lack of therapeutics that target the development of metastasis responsible for 90% of cancer death. Moreover, the development of resistance to available chemotherapies limits their effectiveness. It's an urgent need to find new drugs that target the metastatic process and are efficient on resistant cancers.Our team has identified a new LIM Kinase (LIMK) inhibitor called “Pyr1”. LIM Kinases are implicated in the dynamic regulation of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. We previously published data showing that Pyr1 has an anti-mitotic and anti-migratory activity on a cervical cancer cell line. Moreover, a pilot in vivo study has shown that Pyr1 was efficient in a leukemia mouse model where it increases the lifespan of treated compared to control mice (Prudent et al., 2012).LIM Kinases have been shown to be overexpressed in breast cancer. Moreover the chemotherapeutical agents currently used for this kind of cancer belong to the class of taxanes (such as paclitaxel). Taxanes are cytotoxic compound that directly binds to microtubules and stabilizes them. Since Pyr1 treatment also results in microtubules stabilization, with a complete different mechanism of action, we have decided to investigate the anti-cancer effect of Pyr1 on breast cancer cell lines and xenografts, including paclitaxel resistant models.We showed that Pyr1 decreases primary tumor growth and reduces their size. Pyr1 is well tolerated and the anti-tumor effect is also observed on paclitaxel resistant models. We then studied Pyr1 effects on migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. Intravital imaging of tumors showed that, whereas Pyr1 didn't slow down tumor cell migration, it induced a cell morphological change. Finally, Pyr1 does not affect metastasis spreading but prevents their growth.These results indicate that LIMK inhibitors, such as Pyr1, may represent a pharmacological alternative for taxanes resistant tumors. Moreover, they could be potent agents to reduce the size of metastasis.
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Chloé Prunier. Evaluation de l’efficacité thérapeutique d’un nouvel inhibiteur des LIM Kinases « Pyr1 » dans le cancer du sein. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015GREAV052⟩. ⟨tel-01685749⟩

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