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Biomarqueurs du risque cardio-métabolique dans les pathologies respiratoires chroniques : impact de la prise en charge

Abstract : Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with related metabolic and cardiovascular comorbidities. Chronic intermittent hypoxia the hallmark of OSA induces deleterious intermediary mechanisms such as oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities are also key features of other chronic respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). Chronic hypoxia and deleterious intermediary mechanisms also trigger occurrence and progression of non alcoholic fatty liver disease. This link between chronic respiratory diseases and liver injury is observed through modifications of specific liver biomarkers in OSA and COPD. A variety of cardiometabolic biomarkers have been studied for stratification of cardio-metabolic risk and assessing treatment impact in chronic respiratory diseases. The first part of this PhD thesis is a systematic review of cardio-metabolic biomarkers in 3 respiratory diseases: OSA, COPD and OHS.Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) the first line therapy for OSA improves symptoms and quality of life. However, CPAP effects on cardio-metabolic consequences remains still debated. In the second part of the PhD thesis, we will address CPAP impact on different cardiometabolic biomarkers and more specifically in markers of liver injury by reporting original results of a randomized controlled trial (RCT).Polypharmacy is usual in patients with OSA, COPD or OHS. Beyond CPAP or non invasive ventilation treatment, it is essential address the contribution of associated medications. Indeed, pharmacological treatments can interfere with the severity of the disease and control of associated comorbidities. The third part of the thesis will present a RCT evaluating Bosentan in hypertensive OSA patients and will present how medications for comorbidities decrease bicarbonate diagnosis value for OHS.We will conclude by underlining the crucial importance of personalized medicine and integrated care in chronic respiratory diseases.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01685238
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Submitted on : Tuesday, January 16, 2018 - 11:22:30 AM
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Ingrid Jullian-Desayes. Biomarqueurs du risque cardio-métabolique dans les pathologies respiratoires chroniques : impact de la prise en charge. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAV020⟩. ⟨tel-01685238⟩

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