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Theses

Dynamique des HAP et des composés organiques issus de leur transformation dans les compartiments du sol et de la rhizosphère

Abstract : Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are major persistent pollutants in the environment that are recognized as highly toxic to living organisms. Numerous studies were carried out on the fate of PAHs in soil and in plant rhizosphere and highlighted the major contribution of biodegradation processes and of the sorption to soil constituents. However, a lack of knowledge remains about the fate of PAHs in the soil and especially their location in soil compartments as well as the nature and the behavior of degradation products. The main objectives of the thesis were: (a) to localize PAHs and their derived products within soil compartments (organic matter, minerals, microorganisms and plant), and (b) to quantify and identify the organic compounds forming bound residues. For this purpose, we used two approaches: (i) the monitoring of a labeled PAH, the 13C-phenanthrene (13C-PHE), in a spiked soil planted or not to determine by IRMS and NanoSIMS the 13C-distribution into compartments and to identify derived compounds of 13C-PHE by 13C-RMN et TD/pyGCMS. (ii) the distribution and localization of aged and freshly spiked PAH contamination in a brownfield soil to study the impact of organic matter and minerals (using soil densimetric fractionation) in the PAH retention. More than 40% of C from 13C-PHE remained in the soil after 14 days of ryegrass growth. The 13C-enrichment in plant tissue was similarly to the soil enrichment (E13C ≈ 0.04 at.%) indicating uniform uptake of 13C-PHE between the soil and plant. NanoSIMS images acquired for roots confirmed this global enrichment in the plant. 13C-Hospots were also observed in the rhizosphere, and on the basis on their size, their shape and their elemental composition in C, N and S, they were identified as bacteria, which emphasize their contribution to the fate of PAHs in soil. In the industrial soil, most of the PAHs were found attached to the free OM. However, the freshly spiked PAHs in the soil were significantly associated with organo-mineral associations containing quartz, feldspars and phyllosilicates
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Submitted on : Monday, January 15, 2018 - 12:10:49 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01684207, version 1

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Johanne Cennerazzo. Dynamique des HAP et des composés organiques issus de leur transformation dans les compartiments du sol et de la rhizosphère. Ecologie, Environnement. Université de Lorraine, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LORR0042⟩. ⟨tel-01684207⟩

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