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Conception par l'opportunité pour des villes éco-résilientes aux inondations

Abstract : In recognition of the limits of the possibilities of combating floods, a vision of “Living With” floods is developing. The aim is no longer to resist water, but to allow it into the territory and adapt. This strategic approach opens the way to a positive vision of flood risk, in which the opportunities associated with floods can be envisaged.In this context of “Living With”, this piece of research seeks to theorise and promote the emerging method of opportunity-based design as applied to flood eco-resilient cities. This thesis therefore examines how:1. the concept of opportunity constitutes an approach within the theoretical framework of flood eco-resilient cities;2. the opportunity-based approach constitutes a method of design and offers advantages, relevance and potential for the design of flood eco-resilient cities, in particular by comparison with the most common method of risk management.The purpose of this thesis research is to formalise the method of opportunity-based design through a representational tool—an observation grid— in order to facilitate the use and promotion of such design. In order to communicate on —but above all to exploit the results— of the method, a grid for the observation of the strategies associated with urban and landscape projects for opportunity-based design is investigated. This instrument, in particular aimed at architectural, urban and landscape designers, is developed by means of a semantic map. Semantic mapping is the methodological solution employed in this research. It is used to explore and connect the multiple data collected, and to organise them so that their complexity can be understood. The observation grid therefore maps the method employed and constitutes a tool for implementation in opportunity-based design.On the one hand, the results obtained from this research demonstrate, first, that the opportunity-based approach offers potential for design in response to the complexity of urban flood territories. Through diversity and proactiveness, it would seem to be relevant in achieving the balance between natural phenomena and human activities. On the other hand, the risk-based and opportunity-based approaches are different but complementary. What emerges from the mapping process is that the design of flood eco-resilient cities entails a balance between risk and opportunity.Second, these results show that opportunity-based design reflects a logic that generates virtuous cycles between landscape features (soil, vegetation, etc.) and fundamental flows (water, energy, waste, nutrients, etc.) for the production of socio‑eco-environmental benefits. The basis of its action is to reconnect cities with their territories by articulating, in a multifunctional, interdisciplinary and multitemporal way, the synergies between the physical elements of urban territory. It is particularly relevant in that it formulates a new, balanced relationship between human and hydro-ecological systems and offers the potential for a new societal perspective.To sum up, the first important conclusion is that semantic mapping is an effective research tool in that it facilitates the handling and analysis of complex data. The second is that the method theorised, together with the observation grid developed, constitute a change in flood-related design practices. And finally, this thesis establishes a refined theoretical and practical starting point for challenging the risk management paradigm and pursuing further research into flood eco-resilient cities and into “Living With” floods.
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Submitted on : Friday, January 12, 2018 - 4:14:12 PM
Last modification on : Friday, May 29, 2020 - 5:04:49 AM

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Emilie Gascon. Conception par l'opportunité pour des villes éco-résilientes aux inondations. Architecture, aménagement de l'espace. Université Paris-Saclay, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLD002⟩. ⟨tel-01682913v2⟩

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