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Distribution spatiale des kystes de résistance des Dinoflagellés au niveau du sédiment superficiel de la lagune de Bizerte : cas de l’espèce invasive Alexandrium pacificum R.W. Litaker, 2014

Abstract : The ballast water discharges in Bizerte harbor and shellfish aquaculture farms in Bizerte lagoon can be potentials sources with an interest in the introduction of harmful species, especially those that are potentially toxic like A. pacificum, A. pseudogonyaulax, A.minutum, A.affine and Polysphaeridium zoharyi, without neglecting the role of currents in the distribution of cysts. The study of the vessel traffics for 7 years before our prospection in Bizerte harbour have showing that the percentage of vessels coming from the Pacific road is around 14%. In order to identify species of Dinoflagellates producing resting cysts incriminated on potentially toxic blooms, a high spatial resolution sampling of the surface sediment for the identification and counting of resistance cysts was carried out to estimate the cyst density based on sedimentary characteristics, water content, organic matter, granulometry, abundance of vegetative forms and environmental factors. This study allowed the identification of 48 morphotypes of dinoflagellate cysts, mainly dominated by Brigantidinium simplex, Votadinum spinosum, Alexandrium pacificum, Alexandrium pseudogonyaulax and Lingulodinum machaerophorum. The density of cysts ranged from 1276 to 20126 cysts g-1 dry sediment. Significant differences between cyst distributions were recorded, which enabled us to distinguish two areas in the Bizerte lagoon. Particular attention was given to the complex Alexandrium tamarense (HABs). In addition, morphological examination and ribotyping of vegetative cells obtained from microalgal cultures following extraction process, isolation of resistance cysts from sediment, and their germination led to the production of monospecific culture: ABZ1 characterized by a μ (growth rate) = 0.33 day-1 and a generation time T = 2.1 day. These reviews have confirmed the newly identified genus and species in the Mediterranean sea and mentioned specifically in the lagoon of Bizerte: Alexandrium pacificum. The toxin profile obtained from an extract of ABZ1 culture in exponential phase revealed the presence of N-sulfocarbamoyl toxin C1 (9.82 pg toxin Cell-1), the GTX6 (3.26 pg toxin Cell-1), carbamoyl and the Neo-STX toxin (0.38 pg cell toxin-1), representing 2.8% of total toxins of this strain.A correlation between the abundance of cysts of Alexandrium pacificum and water percentage well as organic matter was found. Moreover, sediment fraction <63μm proved potentially favorable to initiate Alexandrium pacificum blooms in Bizerte lagoon. A significant difference in the cyst distribution diagram was shown, highlighting a zoning of the lagoon with a greater abundance in shellfish farm areas.
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Mouna Fartouna-Bellakhal. Distribution spatiale des kystes de résistance des Dinoflagellés au niveau du sédiment superficiel de la lagune de Bizerte : cas de l’espèce invasive Alexandrium pacificum R.W. Litaker, 2014. Sciences agricoles. Université de Franche-Comté; Université de Carthage (Tunisie), 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016BESA2081⟩. ⟨tel-01680172⟩

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