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Primary cilia on colonic mesenchymal cells regulate DSS-induced colitis and inflammation associated colon carcinogenesis

Abstract : Glycylation, a posttranslational modification of microtubules, is crucial in the maintenance of PC. Our group previously identified an unexpected role of the tubulin glycylase TTLL3 in the regulation of colon homeostasis and tumorigenesis. Specifically, a decreased number of primary cilia (PC) was observed in mice deficient for the glycylase TTLL3, which is the only glycyclase expressed in the colon. TTLL3-/- mice display no obvious abnormalities in the steady state. However, when exposed to chemically induced colon carcinogenesis, TTLL3-/- mice are more susceptible to tumor formation. Importantly, TTLL3 expression levels were significantly downregulated in human primary colorectal carcinomas and metastases as compared to healthy colon tissue, suggesting a link between TTLL3 regulation of PC and colorectal cancer development.The aim of my thesis project was to explore the relation of PC and colon carcinogenesis. In fact, I could demonstrate that the number of PC decreases during chemically induced colon carcinogenesis in mice. Notably, I discovered that PC in the colon are mostly expressed by fibroblasts. To better characterize the role of PC in murine colon, I studied the consequences of a loss of PC in intestinal fibroblasts. For this, I used two independent ciliary conditional knockout mice, kinesin-3A (Kif3A) and intraflagellar transport 88 (Ift88), both essential for cilia formation. Specific deletion in intestinal fibroblasts is obtained by crossing with colVI-cre transgenic mice. Though the colVI promoter is only active in a subset of colonic mesenchymal cells I found that the decreased number of PC in colonic mesenchymal cells promotes chemically induced colitis and carcinogenesis. RNAseq on isolated colonic mesenchymal cells of mutant mice suggests a triggering of Wnt and Notch signaling in ColVIcre-Kif3aflx/flx mice. We are presently validating these findings by qPCR and immunohistochemistryTaken together, I discovered that PC are expressed by at least a subset of colonic mesenchymal cells, which has not been described before. Decreased numbers of those PC renders mice more susceptible to colitis and colitis associated carcinogenesis.
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Ruizhi Tang. Primary cilia on colonic mesenchymal cells regulate DSS-induced colitis and inflammation associated colon carcinogenesis. Human health and pathology. Université Montpellier, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017MONTT020⟩. ⟨tel-01680051⟩

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