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Dépistage et caractérisation de bactéries multirésistantes aux antibiotiques au sein d’un réservoir aviaire méditerranéen

Abstract : Bacterial resistance has become a major public health problem leading to a strengthening of spread surveillance and control. The epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in clinical pathogens is essential for therapeutic management. It is also relevant in animal and environmental bacteria to determine and understand AMR existence and diffusion. While much work has been done on the microbiota of companion animals, studies involving wildlife are scarce. It is essential to consider wildlife when studying AMR dynamics to assess its epidemiological role in AMR spread and understand the zoonotic risk which ensues from it.With our literature review, we highlight the close link between human activities and the presence of AMR in wildlife. It led us to discuss the pathways between the human and animal compartments.A previous study reported the presence of an avian reservoir of extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing Escherichia coli in the South of France. Based on this finding, we explored the microbiota of two gull species, differentiated by their ecological niches and diet, as a potential reservoir of AMR.First, we investigated the presence of acquired AmpC-producing Proteus mirabilis in the gulls’ microbiota over two years. The isolates produced CMY-2 cephalosporinases with the genetic support of an integrative and conjugative element (ICE) which belongs to the SXT/R391-like family. Two human strains had the same enzymes, genetic support and genetic background as the avian isolates. This suggests that these gulls may act as a reservoir of blaCMY-2-carrying P. mirabilis, and the SXT/R391-like ICEs may play an important role in this gene’s dissemination and persistence.We also isolated acquired carbapenemases-producing E. coli, which is currently one of the most serious AMR threats to public health. These strains, which carried the blaVIM-1 gene, were recovered from yellow-legged gulls. The phylogenetic analyses showed that the gulls are significantly linked with human susceptible isolates. However, VIM carbapenemase producing-human isolate was not isolated in the same time period. This discovery raises the question of a potential avian reservoir and the threat of diffusion.During the screening, we identified a carbapenem resistant non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae strain, recovered from a yellow-legged gull. It carried both blaVIM-1 and blaVIM-4 genes which were part of a class 1 integron structure located in an IncA/C plasmid. This is the first description of a V. cholera strain producing this type of carbapenemase.This work demonstrates the complexity of the AMR circulation in the microbiota studied. It opens many perspectives from an epidemiological and fundamental point of view on the mechanisms and genetic supports of AMR. It further illustrates the contribution of molecular epidemiology tools in the understanding of the dynamics of transmission and diffusion and the surveillance of the emergence of AMR in wildlife.
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Salim Aberkane. Dépistage et caractérisation de bactéries multirésistantes aux antibiotiques au sein d’un réservoir aviaire méditerranéen. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Montpellier, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017MONTT022⟩. ⟨tel-01680049⟩

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