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Impact des conditions nutritionnelles sur la dissolution de la silice biogénique des diatomées à travers l'étude de la variabilité de la structure biphasique du frustule

Abstract : Diatoms are microalgae that contribute up to 75% of oceanic primary production and are major players in the oceanic biogeochemical silicon (Si) cycle. Understanding the mechanisms affecting the biogenic silica (bSiO2), constituting the diatom frustule, is necessary to improve the understanding of oceanic Si cycling. In summer, most of the open ocean is limited by low nutrient availability. Thus, the main objective of this thesis is to study the effect of diatom nutritional environment on biogenic silica (bSiO2) dissolution and export. This study focused on iron (Fe), Si and nitrogen (N) limitations, i.e. nutrients whose low concentrations during summer limit diatom production in the majority of the world ocean. One originality of this thesis is to study the copper (Cu) limitation, whose impact on the elemental composition and dissolution of diatoms has rarely been studied. The effects of micronutrient limiting conditions were studied on the pennate diatom Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima while macronutrient limiting conditions were studied on the centric diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii. The first stage of this work was to study the effect of nutrient limiting conditions at two different scales of diatoms frustule: the cell scale, with the study of the silicification degree of diatoms, and the frustule scale, with the study of its structure and composition using Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy (FTIR). The second stage of this work consisted of the study of the diatom post-mortem fate through the study of the dissolution kinetics of bSiO2 from diatom frustule. The FTIR results clearly indicate that, in addition to the plasticity of global bSiO2 content, diatom frustule also has plasticity at the molecular scale, depending on growth conditions. The organization degree and the reactivity degree of the silica lattice are both affected by diatom nutritional environment. The relative amount of organic matter associated with frustule is also affected by nutrient availability. Through these changes, the nutritional environment affects the dissolution of diatom frustules, which showed a two-stage dissolution in all six dissolution experiments, illustrating the biphasic composition of the frustule. The results indicate that the growth conditions affect both the proportion and the dissolution rates of these bSiO2 phases. By changing the intrinsic properties of the bSiO2 phases, nutrient limited-frustules will be dissolving less than non-limited diatom frustule. Therefore, the diatom nutrient environment affects bSiO2 export. In P. delicatissima, only 9 % of the initial bSiO2 remained from replete cells at the end of the twenty-two days dissolution experiment, while about 25 % remained from Cu-starved and Fe-limited cells. Macronutrient-limited T. weissflogii were also more preserved after one month of dissolution with 41 % and 51 % of the initial bSiO2 remaining for cells predominantly Si- or N-limited, respectively, whereas 20% of the initial bSiO2 was preserved in replete cells. These results suggest that the biogenic silica dissolution in global ocean models could be better parameterized taking into account (i) the dissolution kinetics of the two bSiO2 phases and (ii) an enhanced bSiO2 preservation of nutrient-limited cells.
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Julia Boutorh. Impact des conditions nutritionnelles sur la dissolution de la silice biogénique des diatomées à travers l'étude de la variabilité de la structure biphasique du frustule. Autre. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014BRES0009⟩. ⟨tel-01679338⟩

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