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Outil d’aide à la décision pour la conception de maisons solaires à énergie positive

Abstract : With energy-related and environmental climate change challenges, energy sobriety and local energy production are yet to become a mainstream practice for new buildings construction by 2020. This works focuses on single-family houses which in France represent half of new buildings constructions with 200000 new units new units each year. Near zero energy single-family houses with 100 % solar energy consists on compromising between performance of building envelope which defines energy needs and the ability for equipments to value free solar energy. Hence solar energy must be able to cover space heating and domestic hot waterdemands but also provide enough energy for lightning and other specific uses such as domestic appliances.After a literature review of near zero energy house concepts, an analysis was undertaken to providea clear view of solar combi-systems technical solutions with the ability to provide enough energyfor both needs : space heating and domestic hot water. Using Dymola environment a detailed modelwas developed and its consistency was checked by inter-comparison at component scale. An innovative control algorithm has been worked out to maximize the solar system’s global performance. Afirst parametric study has shown that the system was able to cover close to 80 % of house heat requirement. However sizing of a solar combi-system is a complex task and requires to find compromises between building sobriety, solar thermal energy efficiency, and photovoltaics solar energy sizing. Because of the problem’s complexity, a decision aid tool with an appropriate multi-criteria optimizationalgorithm is required.To that end a chapter is dedicated to the development of a multi-criteria optimization algorithm based on artificial bee colony behavior. This approach has proved to be quite effective to solve the problem and to handle continuous, discrete and qualitative decision variables. Chosen solution was constrained to have a positive energy balance and must maximize solar space heating and domestic fraction in a view to reduce total energy consumption. A validation process has also been set up and the developed optimization algorithm has proved its ability to solve standard problems with a fairlyshort number of evaluations. Adopted methodology was illustrated by two applications of the design phase of a near zero energydetached house. First one is located at Bordeaux an second one in Strasbourg. Selected climate conditions emphasize the ability of the proposed approach to identify a wide range of optimal solutions showing differences within the building’s performance as well as the solar system sizing. Lastly a decision aid tool allows to explore optimal front in a convenient way to shape adapted solutions.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, January 9, 2018 - 5:46:08 PM
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Jérémy Bois. Outil d’aide à la décision pour la conception de maisons solaires à énergie positive. Mécanique [physics]. Université de Bordeaux, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017BORD0679⟩. ⟨tel-01679255⟩

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