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Etude d'interface entre matrice polymère et renforts à base de carbone, à l'aide d'observations multiéchelles et multimodales en microscopie électronique

Abstract : This thesis aims to investigate the multiscale (nano-, micro-, and macro-scopic) behavior of the composites based on a fine investigation using the most modern techniques, to understand the interfaces and to quantify them. Two series of reinforcements on a micrometer scale, carbon fibers (CFs) and graphene-based materials, were studied here. To improve the interactions between these nanofillers and the surrounding polymer matrix, two major routes were used in this thesis: the oxidation of the fillers and the grafting of carbon nanotubes on their surface.The study itself was conducted on a microscopic scale on the interfacial strength between CFs and the epoxy matrix, with tensile tests carried out in-situ in the chamber of a double-column FIB-SEM microscope (scanning electron microscope coupled to a focused ion beam). The ion beam was used to mill a thin bond-shaped tensile specimen of composite containing both an epoxy and a CF part. Thetensile stress field was applied using the nanomanipulator and the test was observed both via the ionic and the electronic columns (with two different angles of view) to estimate the strain field, hence the interfacial strength when the failure is observed. A similar experiment was led on a composite with GNPs.Finally, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of the interface region between the epoxy and the graphene-based nanofillers revealed the existence of an interphase and allowed to measure its thickness and give an indication of its nature. For this purpose, an EELS (electron energy-loss spectroscopy) analysis was carried out, making it possible to measure the density of the sample very locally (probe size of the order of a tenth of a nanometer) across or parallelly to an interface. A scenario on the chemical bonding modes between the two media as a function of the surface treatment used makes it possible to explain the nature of the observed interphases.
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Yu Liu. Etude d'interface entre matrice polymère et renforts à base de carbone, à l'aide d'observations multiéchelles et multimodales en microscopie électronique. Autre. Université Paris-Saclay, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLC059⟩. ⟨tel-01678885v1⟩

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