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Theses

Récupération d'énergie à partir de piles à combustible microbiennes benthiques

Abstract : Harvesting energy in the surrounding environment is an advantageous alternative to conventional batteries for powering autonomously remote sensors in addition to processing in an eco-friendly way. Many researches currently focus on harvesting energy from solar, thermal and vibrational sources scavenged in environments near the sensor. Less analyzed in the literature, the benthic microbial fuel cell (BMFC) is an emerging harvesting technology that exploits the waste materials in the seafloors. The catalysis properties of bacteria into a couple of redox reactions convert chemical energy from the sediment into electrical energy. Although promising as a long-term energy source for marine sensors, its power levels (around 100 μW) and voltage (0.6 V in open circuit) commit us to reflect on the design of its electronic harvesting interface. The first chapter of this thesis details the design of lab-made cm2-BMFC while maintaining conditions close to the natural environment. A second chapter focuses on characterizing and modeling the electrical behavior of BMFCs in the static and dynamic domains. Thanks to the static electric model, a harvesting electrical interface is defined and optimized to extract the maximum power and maximize the conversion efficiency. The flyback converter in discontinuous conduction mode is chosen. By using a model predicting the losses of the experimentally validated flyback, we studied the choice of the switching frequency, the duty cycle and the coupled inductances. We reached an efficiency of 82% and 64% for a BMFC delivering respectively 90 μW and 30 μW. A final chapter focuses on optimizing the harvesting interface by taking into account the different variabilities of the BMFC. In particular, the interest of the MPP monitoring is discussed and the influence of the flyback switched behavior on the additional dynamic losses within the BMFC is analyzed thanks to the dynamic electrical model of the BMFC deduced in the second chapter.
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Submitted on : Thursday, March 22, 2018 - 2:17:55 PM
Last modification on : Monday, September 13, 2021 - 2:44:04 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Monday, August 27, 2018 - 10:10:16 AM

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Armande Capitaine. Récupération d'énergie à partir de piles à combustible microbiennes benthiques. Physique [physics]. Université de Lyon - INSA Lyon, 2017. Français. ⟨tel-01678777⟩

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