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Développement d’une approche d’intégration des questions de morphologie urbaine dans l’évaluation environnementale des projets d’aménagement à l’échelle du quartier basée sur l’analyse de cycle de vie

Abstract : This work is a contribution to the environmental assessment of urban development projects in the upstream design phase. It focuses on integrating urban morphology issues with life cycle analysis (LCA) applied to the built environment at the neighborhood scale. The energy performance of buildings is partly determined by design choices relating to the urban form and its interactions with climate. The objective of this thesis is to provide to the design teams a way to take into account the influence of the urban form on the energy potentials of a neighborhood with a life cycle perspective.A preliminary study was conducted on two neighborhoods to detail the influence of the urban form on their energy potentials. An approach to modeling the embodied energy and embodied carbon of buildings is proposed. A sensitivity analysis and a contribution analysis of this model are performed on two generic building shapes. The results demonstrate the key influence of the shape of the buildings and a very strong link between the embodied energy and the building’s compactness. An approach to assessing the passive heating potential and passive summer comfort potential at the neighborhood scale is also developed. It is based on the transformation of a neighborhood in an equivalent urban form (regular array of block buildings), and on the application of metamodels of a thermal simulation engine. The method is tested and discussed on a corpus of 45 case studies. These methodological developments are intended to be integrated into an existing tool for neighborhood LCA (NEST).
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01677273
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Submitted on : Monday, January 8, 2018 - 11:09:08 AM
Last modification on : Friday, October 9, 2020 - 4:03:11 AM

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Marc Lotteau. Développement d’une approche d’intégration des questions de morphologie urbaine dans l’évaluation environnementale des projets d’aménagement à l’échelle du quartier basée sur l’analyse de cycle de vie. Chimie analytique. Université de Bordeaux, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017BORD0685⟩. ⟨tel-01677273⟩

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