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Évolution dentaire dans les populations humaines de la fin du Pléistocène et du début de l’Holocène (19000 – 5500 cal. BP) : une approche intégrée des structures externe et interne des couronnes pour le Bassin aquitain et ses marges

Abstract : Since the Late Pleistocene, a reduction in size and a morphological simplification of human teeth have been observed and arguably linked to cultural and environmental changes. Following new discoveries along with the revision of key archaeological contexts, a re-assessment of the nature of crown variations on more than 1900 teeth is proposed for 176 Late Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Early Neolithic individuals from the Aquitaine Basin and its margins. In particular, a non-invasive assessment of internal tooth structure variability (enamel thickness, dental tissue proportions, enamel-dentine junction morphology) has been performed using 3D imaging methods (microtomography) and geometric morphometrics in order to characterize and interpret dental evolution from a whole crown perspective. Results from the morphometric analyses show a discontinuity between Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene populations. External dimensions, enamel thicknesses and tissue proportions are reduced in Mesolithic individuals compared to those of the Late Paleolithic, while major differences are observed in occlusal wear patterns and enamel distribution between Mesolithic and Early Neolithic samples. These data suggest that environmentally-driven modifications during the Early Holocene had a major impact on dental reduction in human populations and that Neolithic cultural changes had mostly affected enamel distribution. Finally, a correlation between occlusal wear pattern and enamel thickness distribution is observed and associated with dietary changes. In particular, enamel thickness may have rapidly evolved as a selective response to functional changes in masticatory biomechanics.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01677087
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Submitted on : Monday, January 8, 2018 - 1:03:03 AM
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Mona Le Luyer. Évolution dentaire dans les populations humaines de la fin du Pléistocène et du début de l’Holocène (19000 – 5500 cal. BP) : une approche intégrée des structures externe et interne des couronnes pour le Bassin aquitain et ses marges. Anthropologie biologique. Université de Bordeaux, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016BORD0003⟩. ⟨tel-01677087⟩

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