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Nanoparticles functionalized with human antibodies for multimodal molecular imaging of atherosclerosis

Abstract : Because cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the world, providing clinicians with reliable and straightforward imaging techniques to identify "vulnerable" patients from the general population appears like the Holy Grail of the cardiovascular field. Atherosclerosis, identified as the underlying condition for most acute cardiovascular events, is characterized by the constitution of a lipidrich atheroma plaque, driven both by excess cholesterol and inflammation, which eventual rupture triggers clotting into the blood flow. It involves a wealth of cellular and molecular actors, which are so many potential markers for molecular imaging, aiming at deciphering how to warn clinicians about the possible occurrence of myocardial infarction or stroke. Here, human antibodies (HuAbs) selected by phage-display for their recognition of over-expressed biomarkers of the pathology are proposed as targeting ligands. They were further engineered for site-specific grafting, either by introducing Cysteine or Sortase recognition tags, and used to target contrast agents for MRI, fluorescence, or PET imaging. In vitro and ex vivo validation studies were carried out on atheroma sections of animal models. In vivo studies in the ApoE-/- mouse model were realized with the anti-platelet TEG4 HuAb using MRI, which provided insights on the biological relevance and feasibility to detect platelets-rich, high-risk atheroma plaques. The development of contrast agents useful in multi-modality imaging, and multi-functionalized with HuAbs is underway. It should serve as an accurate molecular imaging method for atherosclerosis, further more easily translated into the clinical arena.
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Mélusine Larivière. Nanoparticles functionalized with human antibodies for multimodal molecular imaging of atherosclerosis. Bioengineering. Université de Bordeaux, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016BORD0389⟩. ⟨tel-01675101⟩

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