Étude moléculaire du TNF-Related Apoptosis Induced Ligand (TRAIL) et de l’activation du Toll-Like Receptor 7 (TLR7) dans les cellules dendritiques plasmacytoïdes lors de la réponse antivirale

Abstract : PDC are the first line of defense of our organism against pathogens and establish the essential link between the innate and adaptive immunity. pDC endocyte and destroy the viral particles and thus, detect the genetic material with their antiviral sensors from the Toll-Like Family (TLR). The activation of TLR7/9 induces massive production of type I interferon (IFN-I), a powerful antiviral molecule, essential to control viral propagation during the acute phases of the infection. However, type I IFN can have deleterious effects in a large number of chronic infections and autoimmune diseases. Thus, it seems essential to discover the regulatory mechanism of pDC as well as pDC activation modulators. We showed that monoamines (histamine, dopamine and serotonin) and polyamines (spermine and spermidine) inhibit completely the activation of virus-stimulated pDC. Thus, we showed that amines regulated pDC activation through CXCR4 engagement and that this receptor was a potential switch "on-off" for pDC during viral infections. To better understand the mechanism of action by which amines inhibit pDC activation, we developed a new technology: siRNA transfection in human primary pDC. Furthermore, we detected multinuclear giant cells bearing the shape of a bicycle wheel when pDC are cultured in vitro with high quantities of HIV virus. Thus, on top of monocytes and macrophages, pDC can form in vitro multinuclear giant cells with high levels of p24 viral protein of HIV-1. However, pDC barely get infected (less than 5%). We then wondered if the receptors and co-receptors of the virus were important for the viral recognition during HIV-activation of pDC.
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Nikaïa Smith. Étude moléculaire du TNF-Related Apoptosis Induced Ligand (TRAIL) et de l’activation du Toll-Like Receptor 7 (TLR7) dans les cellules dendritiques plasmacytoïdes lors de la réponse antivirale. Sciences agricoles. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015USPCB145⟩. ⟨tel-01674260⟩

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