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Effets des bioinsecticides à base de Bacillus thuringiensis sur la physiologie intestinale de la Drosophile

Abstract : The digestive tract is continuously subjected to multiple aggressions through virus, bacteria, toxins and chemicals mixed in the feed. Therefore the gut lining has established a mechanism of replenishment in order to maintain the physiological function of the organ called the gut homeostasis. Although the deleterious impact of acute poisoning can be overcome by the defense capacity and regeneration of the gut mucosa, prolonged or repeated intoxication can impair its homeostasis. Among the aggressors hidden in the feed, there is the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Bt is worldwide used as bioinsecticide. Indeed the multitude of Bt strains produces a broad range of crystalline toxins, named Cry toxins, which certain have been selected in organic farming owing to their lethal properties against specific pests. Because of incentive programs for sustainable development, the use of Bt bioinsecticides as an alternative to chemical pesticides will further increase in the next decades. Although the specificity of the acute toxicity of Cry toxins has been proved since many years, data are scarce on adverse effects that could result from chronic exposure. The question now is how far non-target organisms will be potentially impacted by the resulting augmentation of the Bt bacterium and its Cry toxins in the environment. To answer this challenge, I used Drosophila (a non-target organism) to study the impacts of Bt bioinsecticides on the gut physiology because 1/ the digestive tract is the main entrance for feed contaminated by Bt bioinsecticides and 2/ Bt and its toxins are known to impair the gut epithelium of sensitive pests
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Rihab Loudhaief. Effets des bioinsecticides à base de Bacillus thuringiensis sur la physiologie intestinale de la Drosophile. Sciences agricoles. Université Côte d'Azur, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016AZUR4054⟩. ⟨tel-01674214⟩



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