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Caractérisation du transfert de matière dans un spray réactif pour le traitement des fumées : application au captage du CO2

Abstract : Pollutant capture, especially of CO2, is still a major challenge nowadays.CO2 capture based on absorption with chemical reaction by aqueous solutions of amines is the most mature technique for post-combustion gas cleaning.The substitution of packed columns by spray columns presents an economical interest since the exchange area between both gas and liquid phases is very important, reducing the size of the absorption column. In addition, gas side pressure losses are avoided and maintenance costs are reduced.The aim of this thesis is to characterize mass transfer in a spray column during a CO2 absorption by an aqueous solution of monoethanolamine (MEA) by using a new optical technique.The study focuses on the characterization of the local mass transfer between MEA spray and a CO2 atmosphere. In order to achieve this, a non-intrusive optical technique is used: Global Rainbow Technique (GRT). This technique measures the refractive index of droplets in a local portion of the spray. Therefore, the measurement is local with a volume of few cubic millimeters.The refractive index of a solution depends on its temperature and its concentration. Thus, by using a prior calibration in a stirred reactor, the refractive indices of CO2 loaded MEA solutions are correlated with their temperatures and CO2 absorbed concentration. Therefore, measuring refractive index is a measurement of mass transfer extent.GRT is then used during CO2 absorption with chemical reaction, and the amount of CO2 captured per volume unit is measured at several column heights. The experimental results are then compared with mass transfer predictions in a droplet with a model numerically solved in COMSOL Multiphysics.In another hand, gas side mass transfer is characterized by measuring the amount of CO2 in the gas phase with infrared spectrometry during CO2 absorption in an aqueous solution of 30 % MEA. The results are presented in term of capture efficiency and a gas-side mass transfer coefficient is calculated as a function of operating parameters such as gas and liquid flow rates.This work, applied to CO2 capture, deals with mass transfer measurement with GRT through a first application to absorption with chemical reaction. The developed method in this thesis will allow its use for other chemical systems.
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Maria Ouboukhlik. Caractérisation du transfert de matière dans un spray réactif pour le traitement des fumées : application au captage du CO2. Génie des procédés. INSA de Rouen, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015ISAM0008⟩. ⟨tel-01674197⟩

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