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Rôle de l'inflammation hypothalamique dans les dérégulations de la balance énergétique

Abstract : The hypothalamus is a key brain region in the regulation of energy homeostasis, in particular by controlling food intake and energy storage and expenditure by integration of peripheral humoral and nutrient-related signals. Hypothalamic inflammation could alter hypothalamic function, thus deregulate energy homeostasis and induce weight-loss or obesity. We sought to identify mediators that could act as intermediaries between inflammation and neuropeptidergic systems of the hypothalamus that are involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, focusing on chemokines. First, we studied the effect of a central injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide, mimicking a acute and strong inflammation state in mice. We identified the receptor CCR2 as a central actor in the weight-loss induced by this treatment, possibly by direct inhibitory effects on hypothalamic neurons expressing MCH, a peptide known to have orexigenic and energy conservative effects. Second, we studied links between hypothalamic inflammation, weight-gain and/or high-fat diets consumption that can induce, eventually, obesity. We found in mice that: 1) the chemokine CCL5 would promote weight-gain, possibly by enhancing the activity of hypothalamic MCH neurons; 2) altering the lipid composition of a high-fat diet changes the kinetics of the development of diet-induced obesity, together with changes in the inflammatory profile and 3) an excessive dietary lipid intake can induce very early gliosis in the hypothalamus. Taken together, our results underline the interest of reducing hypothalamic inflammation to fight feeding behavior deregulations and identify chemokines as putative therapeutic targets.
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Ophélia Le Thuc. Rôle de l'inflammation hypothalamique dans les dérégulations de la balance énergétique. Sciences agricoles. Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015NICE4122⟩. ⟨tel-01674177v2⟩

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