Interaction entre l'huître creuse Crassostrea gigas et l'Ostréid herpèsvirus OsHV-1 : influence de la salinité et du pH

Abstract : Crassostrea gigas is the most cultivated oyster species around the world. Since 2008, mass mortality events have been affecting oysters aged less than one year old in Europe, and Oceania and have been associated with a new variant of the ostreid herpesvirus type 1, OsHV-1 μvar. Oysters live in estuaries and bays where they are exposed to fluctuations of salinity and pH. In the present work, the effect of salinity (10, 15, 25, 35 ‰) and pH (7.8, 8.1) on the response of oysters to infection by OsHV-1 was investigated. The survival of oysters acclimated to 10 ‰ prior to be exposed to a source of infection is 95% and is explained by a reduction of OsHV-1infectivity. In contrast, the survival of non-acclimated oysters simultaneously submitted to a salinity stress at 10 ‰ and exposed to a source of infectious is only 23%, likely reflecting physiological impairment. The survival (S) of oysters in other salinity treatment is ranked as follow: S15‰ > S35‰ > S25‰ and according to pH as follows: SpH 7.8 < SpH 8.1. In both studies these contrasts of survival are not explained by differences in OsHV-1 infectivity but in host metabolic response. The carbohydrate metabolism and antioxidant activity of oysters acclimated to 25 and 35‰ is higher than in oysters at 10-15 ‰ and could explain the lower survival. Lower antioxidant activity is observed in oysters maintained at pH 7.8 likely reflecting a reduced production of reactive oxygen species and the maintenance of a basal production of nitrogen reactive species despite infection. This might impair the defense ability of oysters to OsHV-1 explaining the reduced survival at pH 7.8 in comparison to what observed at pH 8.1.
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Marine Fuhrmann. Interaction entre l'huître creuse Crassostrea gigas et l'Ostréid herpèsvirus OsHV-1 : influence de la salinité et du pH. Biologie animale. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016BRES0091⟩. ⟨tel-01673826⟩

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