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Analyse du mécanisme et du rôle de l'inhibition de l'autophagie par deux protéines complémentaires du cytomégalovirus humain

Abstract : Abstract: Autophagy is a constitutive and inducible mechanism of degradation of cytoplasmic components, in order to maintain the cellular homeostasis. Autophagy is often modulated by viruses, because it is also considered as an antiviral defense mechanism. It can have a beneficial role, when it is hijacked and regulated by viruses. We have previously observed in our laboratory that the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) stimulates autophagosome formation, at the early stage of infection, independently of viral protein expression then, later on, it blocks autophagy. In this work, we showed that this virus has developed strategies involving the synthesis of several viral proteins, such as IRS1 and TRS1, to inhibit autophagy. Surprisingly, we also demonstrated a proviral role of autophagy at late stages of infection with HCMV. We showed, through biochemical and cellular imaging technologies, that expression of both TRS1 and IRS1 is able to block the formation of autophagosomes. We identified the mechanism of action of these proteins. It is independent of the protein kinase PKR but requires interaction with Beclin 1, a protein of the autophagic machinery. We mapped the interaction site of Beclin 1 with IRS1 and TRS1 in their N-terminal region and called it BBD for Beclin 1-binding domain. This domain (BBD)is conserved between the two proteins and essential to inhibit autophagy. We also identified the site of interaction of IRS1 in the coiled-coil domain (CCD) of Beclin 1. We characterized the role of IRS1 and TRS1 in the modulation of autophagy, in the context of viral infection, using different mutant viruses: viruses in which either the IRS1 or the TRS1 gene has been removed and a mutant virus lacking both IRS1 and TRS1 genes. Our results suggest that both IRS1 and TRS1 are involved in the regulation of this process. To better understand the role of the interaction of these proteins with Beclin 1, we studied the phenotype of a mutant virus that does not express IRS1 and which contains a deletion of the N-terminal region of TRS1. We showed that this mutant does not bind to Beclin 1 and is not able to block autophagy. Surprisingly, it has no defects in viral production, suggesting that inhibition of autophagy is not essential for viral replication. We developed other approaches, including the use of pharmacological modulators of autophagy or shRNA knockdown, which show that the inhibition of autophagy is able to reduce viral production and, on the contrary, that its stimulation increases it. These results suggest that autophagy may be beneficial to HCMV in certain conditions.
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  • HAL Id : tel-01673785, version 1

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Lina Mouna. Analyse du mécanisme et du rôle de l'inhibition de l'autophagie par deux protéines complémentaires du cytomégalovirus humain. Virologie. Université Paris-Saclay, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015SACLS153⟩. ⟨tel-01673785⟩

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