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Enzymes de dépolymérisation d'exopolysaccharides bactériens marins

Abstract : Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are a class of biopolymer synthesized by Eukarya, Archea and Procarya.Bacterial EPSs are involved in biofilm establishment and biofouling phenomenon. These polymers have physicochemical and biological properties suitable with biotechnological valorization. At the opposite, their involvment in biofouling of pathogenic strains can be problematic.Enzymatic depolymerization process are necessary for EPSs structural elucidation, Bioactive oligosaccharides production or to disrupt polysaccharidic biofilms. The highlight of enzymatic phenomenon can help to understand biogeochimical process in the ocean. Nevertheless the important structural diversity as well as their complexity make the sourcing of specific enzymes difficult.Two strategies were used to find enzymes.1. The bacterial way by using EPS-producing marine strains2. The viral way, with marine bacteriophages.For the need of the study, several EPS-substrates were produced and characterized. The majority of them were totally new. An enzymatic screening on 11 marine Alteromonas strains shown that 6 were able to depolymerize their EPS in an endogenous way. A bioprospection was realized to isolates marine bacteriophages with potential viral Cazymes. 10 out of 33 phages were selectionned for their ability to be infectious with their hosts in EPS production induced. Finally, a host/virus system was chosen. The bacteriophages infecting Cobetia marina DSMZ 4741 (named Carin-1 to 5) were studied. The polysaccharidase activities of Carin-1 and Carin-5 on the L6 EPS were studied more deeply. In parallel, the complete structural elucidation of the L6 EPS was realized.
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Florian Lelchat. Enzymes de dépolymérisation d'exopolysaccharides bactériens marins. Microbiologie et Parasitologie. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014BRES0070⟩. ⟨tel-01672523⟩

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