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Pseudo-random generators and pseudo-random functions : cryptanalysis and complexity measures

Abstract : Randomness is a key ingredient in cryptography. For instance, random numbers are used to generate keys, for encryption and to produce nonces. They are generated by pseudo-random generators and pseudorandom functions whose constructions are based on problems which are assumed to be difficult. In this thesis, we study some complexity measures of the Naor-Reingold and Dodis-Yampolskiy pseudorandom functions and study the security of some pseudo-random generators (the linear congruential generator and the power generator on elliptic curves) and some pairing-based signatures based on exponentinversion framework. We show that the Dodis-Yampolskiy pseudo-random functions is uniformly distributed and that a lowdegree or low-weight multivariate polynomial cannot interpolate the Naor-Reingold and Dodis-Yampolskiy pseudo-random functions over finite fields and over elliptic curves. The contrary would be disastrous since it would break the security of these functions and of problems on which they are based. We also show that the linear congruential generator and the power generator on elliptic curves are insecure if too many bits are output at each iteration. Practical implementations of cryptosystems often suffer from critical information leakage through sidechannels. This can be the case when computing the exponentiation in order to compute the output of the Dodis-Yampolskiy pseudo-random function and more generally in well-known pairing-based signatures (Sakai-Kasahara signatures, Boneh-Boyen signatures and Gentry signatures) based on the exponent-inversion framework. We present lattice based polynomial-time (heuristic) algorithms that recover the signer’s secret in the pairing-based signatures when used to sign several messages under the assumption that blocks of consecutive bits of the exponents are known by the attacker.
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Thierry Mefenza Nountu. Pseudo-random generators and pseudo-random functions : cryptanalysis and complexity measures. Cryptography and Security [cs.CR]. Université Paris sciences et lettres; Université de Yaoundé I, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017PSLEE064⟩. ⟨tel-01667124v2⟩

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