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Dynamique interne au front d'écoulements à surface libre. Application aux laves torrentielles

Abstract : A depth-averaged model based on the thin-layer assumption, called Saint-Venant (Shallow-Water), is classically used to simulate the propagation and the spreading of debris and mud flows. It is based on several approximations concerning the shape of the velocity profile in non-uniform zones. We propose to test these hypotheses, examining a strongly non-uniform zone, the front of free-surface viscoplastic flows and the velocity field within this zone. By improving our knowledge about the internal dynamics in the front zone, we seek to improve the thin-layer models. This thesis therefore focuses on the study of the internal dynamics within the front of viscoplatic free-surface flows.We used the moving conveyor belt to generate stationary flows. We carried out a technical work on this set-up, and specific analysis of images obtained from the high-speed camera, in order to be able to measure velocity fields with a high resolution. The study of a Newtonian fluid was also carried out in order to validate the lubrication model and the experimental device.We compared experimental results to theoretical solutions of two thin-layer models taking into account the Herschel-Bulkley rheology: the classical model of lubrication, which is at the base of Saint-Venant model, and a consistent first-order model specifically developed in this thesis.The first-order model is equal to the zero-order model (lubrication), plus corrective terms derived from the normal stresses and inertia terms.In this study, for the purpose of comparison with our experimental results, we are interested in travelling-wave solutions. We are able to solve the shape of the front without using a depth-averaged model.Far from the front, experimental velocity profiles clearly display the characteristic 2-layer structure predicted by the lubrication solution, with constant values close to the free-surface (plug) and a sheared layer underneath. Closer to surge tip, the shape of experimental longitudinal velocity profilesthen begins to differ from the theoretical prediction. The 2-layer structure tends to disappear, and the profiles display shear across the whole depth ofthe flow. In this tip region, surface velocity also appears to increase faster than its theoretical counterpart. Surface velocity predicted by the first-order model increase more drastically in the tip region, in better agreement with the measurements than the lubrication model. The first-order model predicts a sheared velocity profile when approaching the front, as observed experimentally.The consistent first-order model then provides better predictions about internal dynamics than lubrication model. A depth-integrated model like Saint-Venant, based on consistent first-order developments is then calculated, as a first step before being integrated into an operational simulation tool.
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Perrine Freydier. Dynamique interne au front d'écoulements à surface libre. Application aux laves torrentielles. Mécanique des fluides [physics.class-ph]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAU010⟩. ⟨tel-01666139⟩

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