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Impact de l’essence forestière sur les processus de dégradation et d’assimilation des polysaccharides végétaux par la communauté fongique des sols forestiers

Abstract : The degradation of plant biomass is an essential process for the proper functioning of forest soils and terrestrial carbon cycling. Mechanisms involved in these processes are strongly controlled by saprotrophic fungi which secrete several hydrolytic enzymes to access at their primary nutrient sources found under the form of polysaccharides (cellulose and hemicelluloses). Enzymatic hydrolysis of plant polymers releases a high diversity of low molecular weight compounds (mono- and oligosaccharides). These molecules enter in fungal cell using transmembrane transporter systems. Consequently, the presence/absence and the substrate specificity of these transporters might contribute to the metabolic versatility of soil fungi. Several studies have demonstrated that tree species strongly affect diversity and composition of fungal communities. In this context, we hypothesized that the fungal communities selected by the different tree species expressed specific lignocellulolytic enzymes and sugar transporters; and thereby each fungal community was specifically adapted to the nature of litter produced by the tree species considered. We assessed, by the high-throughput sequencing of gene-fragments amplified from soil cDNA, the impact of tree species (Beech vs Spruce) on the diversity of genes encoding either lignocellulolytic enzymes or sugar porters expressed by soil fungi in two mono-specific forests. Our results revealed that most detected genes, encoding either lignocellulolytic enzymes or sugar transporters, have an unknown origin and are specifically found (for more than 80% of them) in one of the two forest soils. This work showed a significant “tree species effect” on the composition of functional genes expressed by soil fungi and suggests that beyond the species level, functional diversity of fungal communities must be addressed to better understand ecosystem functioning. Moreover, by using a functional metatranscriptomic approach, we identified functional transporter sequences differing with respect to their substrate specificities. From a spruce cDNA library, and for the first time, we identified high affinity or mannose specific transporters. Coincidently, as opposed to beech, spruce is indeed a tree species with a large proportion of mannose in its hemicelluloses
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Florian Barbi. Impact de l’essence forestière sur les processus de dégradation et d’assimilation des polysaccharides végétaux par la communauté fongique des sols forestiers. Microbiologie et Parasitologie. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LYO10347⟩. ⟨tel-01666043⟩

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