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Effets des stresseurs environnementaux sur la reproduction de l’abeille domestique (Apis mellifera L.) : action par une exposition des mâles

Abstract : In a context of honey bee decline, an impoverishment of queen quality, resulting in abnormal brood production and early queen renewal, has been observed worldwide. Hence, the assumption was made that fertility impairment of drones exposed to environmental stressors could explain the queen failure observed in apiaries. In order to test this assumption, original approaches to rear drones were developed in laboratory and semi-field conditions. These approaches enabled to show that the systemic insecticide Fipronil, the pathogen microsporidia Nosema ceranae and their combination disrupt drone physiology in different ways, including an impairment of the semen quality. In addition, results have highlighted the high sensitivity of the reproductive function of drone to all of these stress factors. The instrumental insemination of young queens with semen of drones exposed to Fipronil has shown a decrease in the reproductive potential of queens that resulted from a lower number and viability of spermatozoa stored in their spermatheca. Consequently, considering that the spermathecal content determines the egg-laying ability and the lifespan of queens, the risk of queen failure and colony dysfunction is higher. Thus, reproductive disorders, linked to a fertility decline of drones continuously exposed to numerous environmental stressors, could explain, at least in part, the phenomenon of honey bee decline. Thereby, an assessment of the reproductive toxicity of pollutants, including pesticides, to which drones are potentially exposed, should be considered in a future regulatory framework. In this way, the innovative methods and approaches developed in the frame of this work could represent pertinent bases to elaborate new toxicological tests that could be used in the registration procedure of pesticides.
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Guillaume Kairo. Effets des stresseurs environnementaux sur la reproduction de l’abeille domestique (Apis mellifera L.) : action par une exposition des mâles. Sciences agricoles. Université d'Avignon, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016AVIG0678⟩. ⟨tel-01666037v2⟩

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