Etude des interactions de la protéine PMP22 avec les intégrines dans la pathogénie de la maladie de Charcot-Marie-Tooth de type 1A

Abstract : Interactions study of PMP22 protein with integrins in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A pathogenesisChanges in the PMP22 gene (Peripheral Myelin Protein 22) are responsible for peripheral nervous system neuropathies: Hereditary Neuropathy with liability to Pressure Palsy (HNPP) when PMP22 is deleted, Charcot Marie Tooth disease subtype 1A (CMT1A) when PMP22 is duplicated and CMT1E or HNPP when point mutations are present on the PMP22 gene. However, the PMP22 role in these neuropathies remains unclear. Firstly, we studied one of the PMP22 interaction partner: the α6β4 integrin (a laminin receptor), which could be involved in the CMT1A. During this study, we used a transgenic rat model carrying supplementary copies of PMP22 gene from mouse. With this model, we showed variations of expression of integrins genes and a mislocalization of integrins proteins. These variations of integrins witnesses a delay in myelinating Schwann cells maturation, explaining the reduction of myelin sheath thickness observed on CMT1A rats. In a second time, we studied the case of a patient without PMP22 expression, carrying compound mutations one the two alleles of PMP22. We showed that the lack of PMP22 on human leads to a complete lack of myelin due to a blocking in mesaxon formation. In a third time, we conducted a comparative study of animal models and patients with CMT1A / 1E and HNPP. This study allows us to validate the use of such models in the study of neuropathies. Finally, thanks to computational tools we studied the three-dimensional structure of different protein, including PMP22 by using molecular dynamics. This three-dimensional model is the starting point of point mutations study as well as PMP22 interactions with its environments. With animal models and through the study of patients, we have demonstrated the indispensable role of PMP22 in myelin initiation as well as, its effect on integrins expression in CMT1A. The use of PMP22 three-dimensional computational model will help us to understand effects of point mutation on PMP22 structure and interactions.
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Maxime Jouaud. Etude des interactions de la protéine PMP22 avec les intégrines dans la pathogénie de la maladie de Charcot-Marie-Tooth de type 1A. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Limoges, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LIMO0096⟩. ⟨tel-01665810⟩

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